Thought this was interesting - I've been chatting back and forth with an AWFA member in Germany.  She says that European cities charge a "dog tax," annual fee that might range from $30 (US $ equivalent) in a small town to several hundred dollars in a big city, for one dog.  For "dangerous dogs" the tax is higher - she cited one Bavarian city that charges the equivalent of $1700 per year - don't know what dogs they classify as "dangerous" but I do know that European jurisdictions have fairly severe laws against dogs that bite, etc.
    She said that this is just a tax, there is no benefit like you get with a dog license, where the dog can be returned to you if lost -
    Our local TV station did an article last night to encourage dog owners to license their dogs.  They said that only 40% of the dogs in the county are licensed.  It's fairly cheap here - I think I pay maybe $50 for a combined 3-year rabies shot and 3-year license; I do get a discount because my dogs are spayed/neutered and because I'm a senior citizen.  They get a license tag that's traceable to our home/phone in return.  Seems like a very good deal.