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SKIVT-L  July 2003, Week 1

SKIVT-L July 2003, Week 1

Subject:

Mount Washington weather explained

From:

Scott Braaten <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Vermont Skiing Discussion and Snow Reports <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 1 Jul 2003 09:33:29 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (99 lines)

This is a follow up to a thread a few days ago in which many (including
myself) were wondering why Mount Washington's weather is exceptionally
cold, and what stops the summit from hitting 70+ degrees often even when
the valleys are in the 90-100 degree range.  I sent an email to the Weather
guys at the Observatory and here is their response:

-Scott
---------------------------------------------------------------
Scott,

First off thanks for your question.  I will answer it in three parts,
first
explaining why Mount Washington is so cold, secondly comparing our
weather
to that in the mountains of the west and analyzing differences, and
thirdly
explaining why thursday was so hot.

As you mentioned, there is a normal adiabatic lapse rate for
temperature
change with forced altitude lift based on the decrease in pressure
according to the ideal gas law (PV=nRT).  This lapse rate is actually
5.6
degrees F per thousand feet in dry air, but is retarded as water vapor
condenses when the air cools to the dew point.  When complete and
efficient
condensation is occuring, the lapse rate can be slowed to 3.3 degrees
per
1000 ft.  We say that our normal lapse rate is 3.5 degrees because
normally
we are in the fog, but our lapse rate is as much as the standard 5.6
degrees on clear days.  This is normally the case on days when the
valley
is hot and/or inversions are in place, mainly because it is tough for
surface heating in the valley to occur with clouds above, along with
other
meteorological factors based on stability.

So if you take 5000 feet by say a 5 degree lapse rate when the valley
is
95, you get 70 degrees.  But as you mentioned, even this temperature is
rarely attained.  There are therefore other factors that place that
keep us
cool, mainly based on our location.  Basic thermodynamics state that in
order to heat a layer of air, you need to absorb radiation to create
heat
and mix it through the layer.  The valley heats up quickly because most
of
the land is in the same layer, and the combined surface heating creates
the
heat.  Since Mount Washington stands alone as the only 6000+ foot land
mass, and significant free air mixing occurs with our winds, it's
difficult
to render any surface heating at all.  So we are subject to the
temperatures of the free air, which are always well above a surface
inversion, and are therefore colder still.  The free air that we are
subject to is usually prevailing from the west or northwest even when
the
valleys are southwest, which brings in cool, continental air from the
Great
Lakes and Canada.  It therefore very difficult to climb above the low
to
mid 60's even when the valley is near 100 degrees.

By comparison, in the west the surface heating occurs at between 6000
and
10000 feet, and there are many peaks above 12-14000 feet to aid to
warming
the layer.  The prevailing free air at the highest peaks is maritime in
nature from the pacific, which is warmer to start and has more moisture
in
it and therefore slower lapse rates as well.  That is why you can stand
atop 12000 foot peaks out west and be warmer than our mountain top.

Lastly, we were so warm the other day, because the entire sounding of
the
local atmosphere was abnormally warm, not just the surface.  The
inversion
layer reached our peak and with light winds from the southwest
(abnormal) little mixing occurred.  This was further enhanced by a high
pressure
area directly above us which cause sinking air and warming with the
compression (a reverse lapse rate have you).  Such factors rarely come
together, and this time we experienced record warmth.

Hope this answers all your questions, and feel free to pass the
information on to the skiing listserve.

Again, thanks for your question and interest in the Mount Washington
Observatory!

Jim Salge
Meteorologist/Summit Intern

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