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SKIVT-L  April 2004, Week 4

SKIVT-L April 2004, Week 4

Subject:

Crampon Technique (really long) (was:Re: Another Delayed Rockpile Report - long)

From:

Marc Chrusch <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Vermont Skiing Discussion and Snow Reports <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 27 Apr 2004 11:44:04 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (168 lines)

Dave wrote:

> > [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Henry, Chris
> > Agree with you that an ice axe would be more useful in
> > helping you stop
> > after a fall than crampons, but disagree that crampons aren't
> > much help at that angle. If you're good at using crampons
> > then you're generally trying to avoid front pointing as much
> > as possible, as flatfooting it is much less tiring, especially
> > on the calves.
>
>I'm a hiker, not a climber so I would love to hear folks
>with realy climbing experience chime in on this.
>
>Totally agree with you about the superiority of keeping
>a flat foot. But the only way you are going to do this
>on the high-angle slopes of Tucks is if a) you are kicking
>steps, b) (in all likelihood climbing by way of a traverse
>and c) the snow is relatively soft.

The following overly-long paste is from the Cody Ice Online Clinic. While
it's focused primarily on ice climbing, there's a lot here applicable to
steep snow climbing. [This is actually coming from Google's cache since I
can't seem to find any navigation to this page from their live site.]

-marc


Ice climbing typically brings to mind frozen waterfalls a climber working
his way up vertical ice with 2 axes, crampons toe-in to the ice. Climbing
alpine ice, though, can be anything from walking flat-footed with crampons
and a single ice axe to the twin-tool, front-pointing scenario described
above. A perennial glacier is a larger and more variable beast than most
winter waterfalls, so you need to use different techniques for changing ice
conditions and slope angles. First, we'll look at how you use your feet on
the ice.

Crampon Techniques
Although it is possible to climb low-angle ice by using rough features or
by chopping steps with your ice axe, at a certain point crampons need to be
used for efficiency, if not safety. Alpine climbing involves techniques
adapted to different terrain. These styles are known as French and German
technique, for the areas in which they originated. Modern alpine climbing
uses both of these styles.
    * French Technique The French technique or flat-footing on ice is the
preferred technique for low-angle to moderately steep ice. All crampon
points but the very front are kept in contact with the ice for traction.
This is the most efficient way to travel over hard snow or ice. On
lower-angle ice, climbing is simply a matter of pointing your feet uphill
and planting them solidly, including your heels. As the slope angle
increases, climbing requires greater ankle flexibility. It is easier to
turn your toes outward to walk ducklike in order to keep the feet flat. On
steeper slopes, you can progress diagonally up a slope with all points in,
but with toes pointing across the slope or even slightly downhill.
    * Eventually, it becomes necessary to sidestep up the slope. To do
this, plant your uphill foot solidly, then cross your lower foot over it
and plant solidly. This cross-over, upward progression requires care, as it
is easy to catch your crampon points on the opposite boot, gaiter or
crampon straps. It is important in the French technique to plant all points
except the front two. It is tempting to try to "edge" into a slope, placing
only the inner row of points and leaving the outer points in the air. This
is easier on your ankles, but your crampons can skate over the ice,
allowing you to skate down the slope. The French technique works on slopes
up to about 40. Beyond this, it's harder on the ankles, and more advanced
positions are required.
    * German Technique The German technique is more commonly known as
front-pointing, due to the fact that only the front-facing crampon points
come in contact with the ice. It's commonly used on slopes of about 45 and
up. The climber faces the slope and kicks his toes in to plant the 2 or 4
front points. It is the most direct way to ascend a steep slope but also
the hardest on calf muscles since only the crampon frames support your
feet. Unlike French technique, which takes some practice to get the
footwork down, German technique is fairly straightforward. Kick, plant the
front points, stand. That's not to say that your foot placements shouldn't
be precise. Your body weight must rest on the few sharp points of your
crampons and tools, so secure footholds are essential.
    * Combined Technique One way to make climbing moderately steep ice
more comfortable is to mix the German technique (or toe-in to the slope)
with flat-footing. This combination technique is known as the "3 o'clock
position" or "pied troisieme" and is usually less tiring than straight
flat-footing. It involves planting the front points of one foot while
keeping the other foot splayed out to the side, sole flat against the slope.
    * Some Style Pointers It's common for beginners to kick repeatedly to
set the crampon points. This and kicking too hard are not only tiring, but
can weaken the ice you're standing on. You learn quickly enough about
"dinner plates," or flakes of ice that come crashing out when you're too
rough with tools or crampons! Another tendency is to keep one's heels up
too high, allowing the front points to pop out. Lowering your heels
leverages the front points farther into the ice. This is especially
important at the end of a steep section or a pitch that ends in a shelf or
on flatter terrain. As you top out, it's easy to let your heels come up as
you reach and climb over the edge. Working your feet higher and keeping
heels low at this point will help to avoid an unnecessary slip.
Walking on level or low-angle ice does not necessarily require the use of
an ice axe. In fact, it's a good idea to practice your flat-foot technique
(with and without crampons) without relying on your ice axe(s) so you learn
the "feel" of the ice underfoot. Of course, you carry and eventually use
ice axes or tools on any ice climb. Longer mountaineering axes are often
paired with shorter ice tools on alpine routes which involve both snow and
ice travel. On steep, technical ice routes, 2 short tools are typically
used, one with a hammer and one with an adze. The adze is used for clearing
the ice before placing ice screws or for chopping steps or belay ledges. A
hammer is used for pounding in ice pitons.



This section covers basics of using axes or ice tools on ice.

Ice Axe Techniques
For low-to-moderate-angle ice (up to about 45) using French technique:

    * Cane (piolet canne) The cane position is used when you are walking
on flat to moderately steep terrain. Hold the axe by the head with the
spike (at the end of the shaft) contacting the ice. This axe technique is
combined with walking forward or duck-walking as explained in the crampon
section above.
    * Cross-Body (piolet ramasse) As the slope angle increases, you turn
your body sideways to the slope and progress diagonally upward. Here, the
cross-body position is a more secure way to hold your axe. Grasp it by the
head in your downhill hand and plant the spike across your body into the
slope. This is especially useful if you are descending a slope by sidestepping.
    * For steep ice (45 and higher) using German technique:
    * Low Dagger (piolet panne) The low dagger position comes into play
when you face into the ice or snow and start to front-point. Holding the
axe by the head at the adze, push the pick into the slope at about waist or
chest level. This is used for short stretches for balance and is better
used on hard snow or soft ice. It's difficult to get much purchase on hard
ice with this technique.
    * High Dagger (piolet poignard) This is the same as low dagger,
except that you are placing the axe above your head. Your hand is wrapped
around the head of the axe with the pick facing into the slope. High dagger
is used when the slope gets too steep for low dagger to be effective.
    * Anchor (piolet ancre) The anchor position gives you even more
security. Hold the axe near the bottom of the shaft. Swing the axe overhead
to set the pick into the ice. Now, front-pointing, work your feet upward as
you move both hands progressively higher on the axe shaft. Eventually, one
hand will be holding the axe head, similar to the low dagger position. At
this point, remove and place the axe again.
    * Traction (piolet traction) The traction position is used on very
steep to vertical or overhanging ice. When ice is very steep, 2 tools are
necessary to maintain balance and contact with the ice as you proceed
upward. Holding the tool by its shaft near the base, swing overhead and
plant the pick firmly but carefully in the ice. Do the same with the other
tool and then work your feet upward. Snug wrist loops are essential when
you are using the traction position for maintaining a good grip on the
tools. They also let you "hang" by bending your knees and straightening
your arms to rest.

Ice Tool Placement
    * When placing your tools, look for depressions in the ice, which are
stronger than outward bulges and resist fracturing a bit better. If you are
following, look for holes left by your partner and place your tools in them.
    * Just as with crampon placement, a single sure swing is far better
than several taps or random chops at the ice. It saves energy and the ice
surface. The right amount of force is important, too. Try to avoid swinging
your tools too hard, or you will tire out your arms quickly. The more you
can align your shoulder, wrist and axe when you swing, the more direct and
secure the placement will be.
    * To remove your tools as you climb past them, it's important to lift
them out the way they went in. Move the pick back and forth in the same
direction it went into the ice, and push up on the adze or hammer to help
lift it out. Try not to wiggle the pick side to side as this can break it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
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April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
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March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
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January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
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December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
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October 2006, Week 5
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September 2006, Week 5
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August 2006, Week 5
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January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
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December 2005, Week 2
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November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
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October 2005, Week 3
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October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
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August 2005, Week 5
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April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
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March 2005, Week 1
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February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
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November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
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October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
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August 2004, Week 5
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June 2004, Week 5
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June 2004, Week 2
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April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
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February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
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December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
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November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
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October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
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January 2003, Week 1
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December 2002, Week 4
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December 2002, Week 2
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November 2002, Week 5
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November 2002, Week 1
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October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
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September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
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July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
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March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
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December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
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November 2001, Week 1
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October 2001, Week 1
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May 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
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March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
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February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
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March 2000, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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