LISTSERV mailing list manager LISTSERV 16.5

Help for SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE Archives


SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE Archives

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE Archives


SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE@LIST.UVM.EDU


View:

Message:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Topic:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

By Author:

[

First

|

Previous

|

Next

|

Last

]

Font:

Proportional Font

LISTSERV Archives

LISTSERV Archives

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE Home

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE Home

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE  July 2007

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE July 2007

Subject:

IRAN: Winds of Change

From:

Yoshie Furuhashi <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Science for the People Discussion List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 31 Jul 2007 12:33:08 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (164 lines)

<http://pepei.pennnet.com/display_article/294265/89/ARTCL/none/none/Winds-of-change/>
Middle East Energy June, 2007
Author(s): Heather Johnstone
Winds of change

As Iran continues to develop its nuclear power industry under the
watchful eye of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the wider
international community, what few realize is that for the last 13
years it has been quietly developing a domestic wind power industry.

Iran is a country rich in fossil fuels. Its proven oil reserves are
estimated to represent 10 per cent of the world's total, while its
recoverable coal reserves are around 420 million tonnes. Furthermore,
its natural gas reserves are estimated to be 25.5 trillion m3, second
only to Russia in size. Thus, it is unsurprising that this country
relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its growing energy needs.

Click here to enlarge image
<http://pepei.pennnet.com/articles/enlarge_image.cfm?IMAGE_ID=248827&SITE_ID=MEE>
Manjil in the northwest province of Gilan is home to one of the few
wind farms in the Middle East region

As a consequence of this reliance its atmospheric emissions of carbon
dioxide (CO2) are steadily rising. According to the USA's Energy
Information Agency, Iran's CO2 emissions rose almost 40 per cent to
109.61 million tonnes of carbon (equivalent) between 1994 and 2004. In
an effort to address this growing problem the government is looking at
various ways to reduce these emissions.

The greater use of natural gas for electricity generation through the
construction of combined-cycle plants is being encouraged. The
government is also keen to expand its nuclear power industry, and has
indicated that it plans to build 6000 MW of additional nuclear
capacity. It also wants to develop its own uranium enrichment
programme, but this is bringing it into conflict with the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) over fears that this might
enable it to develop a weapons capability.

What few realize, however, is that since the mid-1990s Iran has been
quietly developing a wind power industry. In this article, which is
based on a paper by Professor M. Ameri and M. Ghadri presented at this
year's POWER-GEN Middle East in Bahrain, we chart this burgeoning
Iranian industry's development.

Why wind power?

Iran has a strategic geographical position in the Middle East. It not
only borders the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and the Caspian Sea,
but also shares land borders with Turkey, Armenia, Iraq, Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan - a point where east truly
meets west. Furthermore, its geographical location combined with its
relatively mountainous terrain means that it can maximize the use of
the strong air currents coming from Asia, Europe and Africa.

In the mid-1990s studies to assess the feasibility of utilizing wind
power for the generation of electricity began. Using both software
simulation programmes and preliminary field studies, two sites were
identified as being particularly good locations for wind farms.

The first is the area around the city of Manjil in the northwest
province of Gilan. It is known as the windy city of Iran because of
its location in the Alborz mountain range. The city is located in a
small valley, which funnels the wind through the city on its way to
the Qazvin plateau. Wind speeds of up to 11 metres per second (m/s)
have been recorded in the area. The second site is at Dyzbad, which is
located in the northeast of Iran, near the holy city of Mashhad.

Manjil wind farm

The Manjil wind farm comprises several different sites in the area.
The Manjil site is located southeast of the Sefid-rud dam and covers
an area of 2 million m2. Currently 31 wind turbines are in operation,
with another 19 turbines due to be installed in the near future. The
Rudbar site is located in a high altitude, rural area outside Manjil
and covers an area of 200 000 m2. At the moment four wind turbines -
three 550 kW and one 500 kW - are operating, but the installation of
four more is anticipated. Finally, the Harzevil site is northeast of
Manjil and is 650 000 m2 in size. Twelve turbines are currently
working, with the installation of a further two 300 kW likely.

Click here to enlarge image
<http://pepei.pennnet.com/articles/enlarge_image.cfm?IMAGE_ID=248817&SITE_ID=MEE>
Annual production of electricity at the Manjil wind facility, 1996-2005

In 1994, two 550 kW wind turbines were installed at the Manjil and
Rudbar sites. Three years later, in a project financed by the World
Bank, the capacity of the Manjil wind farm was increased to 10 MW,
with the installation of eight 550 kW and 19 300 kW wind turbines.

Installed capacity

Since those early days the capacity and number of wind turbines
installed in the Manjil area has grown significantly. The table above
shows the capacity and number of installed wind turbines over the
period between 1994 and 2005.

Click here to enlarge image
<http://pepei.pennnet.com/articles/enlarge_image.cfm?IMAGE_ID=248975&SITE_ID=MEE>

Fifty-one wind turbines, with a total capacity of 21.6 MW, had been
installed at the wind farm by the end of 2004. This comprised of 27
300 kW turbines (15 in Manjil and 12 in Harzevil), two 500 kW (one
each in Manjil and Rudbar), 18 550 kW (three in Rudbar and 15 in
Manjil), one 600 kW turbine in Babaian and three 660 kW in Pas-Koulan.

In 2005, control of the wind farm was handed over to the Renewable
Energy Organization of Iran (SUNA), which is affiliated with Tavanir -
Iran's Power and Transmission Management Organization. Tavanir is an
executive organization that controls the country's electricity sector
on behalf of the Ministry of Energy.

One of SUNA's main aims is to increase the capacity of the Manjil wind
farm to 90 MW. As part of that effort 19 660 kW turbines, with a total
capacity of 12.5 MW, were installed at the Pas-Koulan site, increasing
the total capacity of this site to 14.5 MW between February and March
of 2005.

The installation of 12.5 MW in 2005 represented 37 per cent of the
total capacity installed over the 12-year period between 1994 and
2005. Furthermore, 2005 saw the highest number of turbines installed
in any one year, representing 27 per cent of the total number of wind
turbines installed over the period 1994-2005.

The total production of electricity during 1994 to 2005 was 296 TWh,
with 62 TWh produced in 2005 alone. This represents more than a 56 per
cent growth in production between 2004 and 2005 (see graph below).

Dyzbad wind farm

The Dyzbad wind farm is located in what can be best described as a 50
km by five km "wind tunnel", through which wind steadily flows west to
east at a velocity of 8.9 m/s. The wind energy potential of this area
has been estimated at 2000 MW.

The wind farm will eventually consist of 43 660 kW wind turbines that
can produce 28.4 MW of electricity. Currently, 23 wind turbines are in
operation and delivering electricity to the grid.

The combined total capacity of the Manjil and the Dyzbad wind farms is
currently 47.3 MW, but there are plans to increase it to 120 MW.
Furthermore, two 100 MW wind farms projects, which will be built by
the private sector, are currently under consideration by SUNA.

In November 2003, the Saba Sadid Niroo factory was also established to
manufacture, under license to Vestas, 660 kW turbines.

Growth opportunities

Although wind power generation remains modest - according to the
Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA), in 2005 wind contributed only
0.02 per cent to electricity production - it is likely that Iran will
continue to grow and develop its wind power capabilities.

Based on the latest developments in wind turbine technology, economic
evaluation and recent research into the country's wind energy
potential, electricity production though wind power is estimated to be
6500 MW.

For Iran's northern regions in particular, which are located far from
its main gas fields in the south, the capability to generate
electricity from wind power makes a lot of sense.
--
Yoshie

Top of Message | Previous Page | Permalink

Advanced Options


Options

Log In

Log In

Get Password

Get Password


Search Archives

Search Archives


Subscribe or Unsubscribe

Subscribe or Unsubscribe


Archives

June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006
April 2006
March 2006
February 2006
January 2006
December 2005
November 2005
October 2005
September 2005
August 2005
July 2005
June 2005
May 2005
April 2005
March 2005
February 2005
January 2005
December 2004
November 2004
October 2004
September 2004
August 2004
July 2004
June 2004
May 2004
April 2004
March 2004
February 2004
January 2004
December 2003
November 2003
October 2003
September 2003
August 2003
July 2003
June 2003
May 2003
April 2003
March 2003
February 2003
January 2003
December 2002
November 2002
October 2002
September 2002
August 2002
July 2002
June 2002
May 2002
April 2002
March 2002
February 2002
January 2002
December 2001
November 2001
October 2001
September 2001
August 2001
May 2001
March 2001
February 2001
January 2001
December 2000
November 2000
October 2000
September 2000
August 2000
July 2000
May 2000
April 2000
March 2000
February 2000
January 2000
December 1999
November 1999
October 1999
September 1999
August 1999
July 1999
June 1999
May 1999
April 1999
March 1999
February 1999
January 1999
December 1998
November 1998
September 1998
August 1998
July 1998
June 1998
May 1998

ATOM RSS1 RSS2



LIST.UVM.EDU

CataList Email List Search Powered by the LISTSERV Email List Manager