Mainstream accounts of Colony Collapse Disorder omit the experience of the
organic apiarist. Why would they do that -- when the organic experience
contains the least variables, and therefore is an invaluable context for the
understanding of CCD. See http://harpub.co.cc/beeccd.htm
Organic beekeepers* are not experiencing CCD, though their bees also
encounter pesticides and genetically engineered crops. These beekeepers know
why: Oversize wax cells (artificial) lead to oversize brood and adult bees which
are unable to protect themselves from mites and pathogens. Bee size-scale
has already been optimized by evolutionary processes during the last eon. See
Processed commercial sugars used as supplanted bee food, while overtaking
the bee's stored honey, and chemical treatments, lead to additional bee
weakness. These technical invasions leads to hive poisoning and mite and
pathogen infestation. Bees are normally able to groom mites from each other
and from their hives.
*Organic beekeeping pertains to methods of beekeeping, not the impossible
task of absolutely excluding pesticided crops.
On Sat, 5 Jun 2010 08:33:23 +1200, Robert Mann <[log in to unmask]>
>No single cause for mass die off of honey bees: OIE
>Paris, April 28 2010; Agence France-Presse
>The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has carried out a
>global review of colony collapse disorder
> The huge die-off of bees worldwide, a major threat to crops
>depending on the honey-making insects for pollination, is not due to
>any one single factor, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
>said on Wednesday.
>Parasites, viral and bacterial infections, pesticides, and poor
>nutrition resulting from the impact of human activities on the
>environment have all played a role in the decline, the OIE said.
> At normal times, bee communities naturally lose around five
>per cent of their numbers.
> But with the syndrome known as colony collapse disorder
>(CDD), a third, half -- sometimes even 90 per cent -- of the insects
>can be wiped out.
> In the United States, government figures released last month
>showed a 29 per cent drop in beehives in 2009, coming on the heels of
>declines of 36 and 32 per cent in 2008 and 2007.
> The mysterious decimation of bee populations in the United
>States, Europe, Japan and elsewhere in recent years threatens
>agricultural production worth tens of billions.
> "Honey and royal jelly are examples of precious food that we
>owe to bees but foremost we owe them abundant harvesting of fruits
>and vegetables since they contribute to pollinate the flowers which
>will produce the harvest," said Bernard Vallat, the OIE's Director
> "Bees contribute to global food security, and their
>extinction would represent a terrible biological disaster," he said
>in a statement.
> By some estimates, around a third of the food on our plates
>gets there thanks to Apis mellifera.
> The global review conducted by OIE experts concluded that
>"irresponsible use" of pesticides may damage bee health by increasing
>their susceptibility to different diseases.
> Inadequate "biosecurity" -- especially protecting against
>invasive species - and climate change also likely play a role, the
> "Resources to establish increased surveillance and
>registration processes, inspection, diagnoses and research capacity
>are missing in many countries and regions of the world," Wolfgang
>Ritter, chair the expert panel said.
> Earlier research has shown that different bee parasites are
>active in different parts of the world.
> Culprits already identified include a blood-sucking mite
>called Varroa and a single-celled fungal parasite called Nosema
>cerenae that causes bee dystentery.
> In Europe, a recent intruder -- the Asian hornet, Vespa
>velutina -- lurks near hives and captures honey bees in mid-flight,
> Another suspect is poor nutrition. Mega-farms stripped of
>hedgerows and wild flowers, along with spreading suburbs, are thought
>to be depriving bees of a decent diet.
> More recently a new pathogen, Varroa jacobsoni, has attacked
>Apis mellifera in Oceania, and now presents a new threat to
> Vallat called for more research and adherence to OIE
>guidelines on biosecurity in trade of bees between countries, a major
>cause of global contamination.
> My main objection to this report is the term 'worldwide',
>when CC has yet to be reported in NZ.