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SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE  January 2012

SCIENCE-FOR-THE-PEOPLE January 2012

Subject:

FW: [ActionGreens] Re: Capitalism and the Accumulation of Catastrophe

From:

Larry Romsted <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Science for the People Discussion List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 26 Jan 2012 11:51:37 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

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>
>Below is a response by Isis Feral to Barbs on the Action Greens list
>about 
>focusing on more jobs to employ the unemployed versus focusing on meeting
>people's needs.
>
>I don't agree with Isis' defining jobs as just "keeping people busy", but
>I am intrigued by the documentary she sent about Cuba.  It is 53minutes
>long and I don't have to watch it at work, but from the few minutesI
>watch of the introduction, it is about how Cuba dealt with its oil crisis
>when the USSR stopped sending them oil.  Since the world faces coming oil
>and water crises, it could be an interesting model.  I plan to watch the
>full video at home.
>
>Larry
>
>On 1/26/12 6:57 AM, "isisferal" <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
>>A wise woman at an Occupy Oakland workshopsaid that there already was
>>full employment in the black community once: it was called slavery.
>>
>>We really need to start focusing on meeting needs, not about
>>guaranteeing 
>>jobs. As a disabled person a job is quite literally the last thing I
>>need. And frankly, it's the last thing most people need, regardless of
>>ability. Jobs are about keeping people busy, so they can 'earn' the
>>things that they need to survive. What rubbish! Busy-ness doesn't meet
>>needs. It just wastes time. No one should have to 'earn' their survival.
>>Survival is a human right.
>>
>>I think we can learn a lot from what Cuba did when they ran out of oil.
>>They stopped business as usual and focused on basic needs. They stayed
>>in 
>>their neighborhoods and started growing organic food. I highly recommend
>>the documentary 'The Power of Community - How Cuba Survived Peak Oil',
>>which you can watch online here:
>>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgqn3bTekFA
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>--- In [log in to unmask], Barbs <barbslink@...> wrote:
>>>
>>> An analysis on the current conditions of capitalismwould be good. The
>>> international part is essential since factory commodity production has
>>> moved to lower wage countries, and people in Africa, Asia, and South
>>> America suffer the most under this system of war and exploitation. It
>>> also really bolsters capitalism here, as commodities are cheaper.
>>> 
>>> Production of human needs under working class control is something we
>>> can begin to do here in our communities. But you run up against
>>>private 
>>> property, we really need a Commons; like our occupy camp felt like. I
>>> like #4, "This latter implies that workers' organizations must take on
>>> social, economic and ecological issues in the communities as well as
>>>on 
>>> the job, _as part of their fight for renewal of their contract_ and
>>>the 
>>> control over social space."
>>> 
>>> The problem is these workers in unions feel like their backs are so
>>> against the wall, they are happy to have a union job, and they are
>>>made 
>>> to feel lucky that they have a job at all by the system. It is a way
>>>to 
>>> psychologically keep us down. That is why I like the struggle for a
>>> "Guaranteed Job or INCOME", which should be the essential economic
>>> demand under capitalism!
>>> 
>>> 
>>> On 1/25/2012 9:10 PM, Mitchel Cohen wrote:
>> >
>>> > These are times when strikes by workers -- unless they take place in
>>> > areas essential to capitalist accumulation and profiteering, and are
>>> > coordinated internationally against targeted sectors -- have become
>>> > defensve and counterproductive.
>>> >
>>> > Yet some leftists fetishize the form of struggle, partly because
>>>they 
>>> > romantacize its historical value and partly because they cannot
>>>think 
>>> > strategically based on an analysis of current conditions of
>>>capitalism.
>>> >
>>> > The CIO in the 1930s moved beyond the strike form to include
>>> > occupations of automobile factories in River Rouge, Flint and
>>>Detroit. 
>>> > But today, even that occupation to shut down actories and deprive
>>> > capital of making a profit is itself problematic for a number of
>>> > reasons. We can get into what those reasons are at another point, if
>>> > we need to.
>>> >
>>> > There are any number o strategies that can be effective, but to do
>>> > that successful working class organizing in the U.S. must include
>>> > certain components:
>>> >
>>> > 1) They must be international, and organize across national borders.
>>> >
>>> > 2) They must not simply shut down production, but begin production
>>> > again under working class coordinated auspices.
>>> >
>>> > 3) They must realize that capitalism itself has broken up the 1935
>>> > social contract with big labor that was so essential to
>>>Keynesianism, 
>>> > in which most unions in the U.S. had the opportunity to be
>>>recognized 
>>> > legally in exchange for limiting the kinds of fights workers engaged
>>> > in on the job to matters of wages and certain working conditions.
>>> >
>>> > 4) This lattr implies that workers' organizations must take on
>>> > social, economic and ecological issues in the communities as well as
>>> > on the job, _as part of their fight for renewal of their contract_
>>>and 
>>> > the control over social space.
>>> >
>>> > There are many radical strategies and tactics that arise from these
>>> > four basic understandings to the changes capitalism has undergone.
>>>The 
>>> > fetishization of the "General Strike" -- especially when one is
>>> > issuing the "call" for it without any roots in significant working
>>> > class organizations that would allow it to succeed -- is by itself a
>>> > roadmap for stupidity and failure.
>>> >
>>> > Mitchel
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> > At 08:40 PM 1/25/2012, Carol Holland wrote:
>>> >
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >> I got a flyer for the May 1 general strike at the occupy the Rose
>>> >> Parade march and rally. I said I don't know if this s a good idea
>>> >> because the problem is they have created an econom that doesn't
>>>need 
>>> >> workers anymore, and if they do they can let in more immigrants.
>>> >> Since they really don't care about us working why would they care
>>>if 
>>> >> we strike. It's just an excuse for them to fire us.
>>> >>
>>> >> I think a good plan is to have a campaign to go back to Keynes-ism.
>>> >> Everyone will remember that it was much better and it would get a
>>>lot 
>>> >> of support. My variation is that we nationalize big business and
>>> >> banks. Entrepreneurships are encouraged but taxed at 90 percent
>>>after 
>>> >> $500,000 a year income. There would be no investment capitalism
>>>Wall 
>>> >> Street stuff. Lots of social services and education.
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >> *From:* Barbs <barbslink@...>
>>> >> *To:* "[log in to unmask]" <[log in to unmask]>
>>> >> *Sent:* Tuesday, January 24, 2012 2:42 AM
>>> >> *Subject:* [ActionGreens] Re: Capitalism and the Accumulation of
>>> >> Catastrophe!!
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >> Nice Seth!! I do want to replace capitalism! I just want a plan to
>>>do 
>>> >> it. We are working on strategy. I think there is such a thing as
>>> >> radical reform if you can deny them profit and growth, and it does
>>> >> build a movement. We are going to look at the concept of the
>>>Commons. 
>>> >> What are other peoples plans to end capitalism? I am all for a
>>> >> general strike but so many people in this country still feel they
>>> >> have everything to lose with this system and don't see an
>>>alternative.
>>> >> Barb
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >> On 1/23/2012 10:36 PM, Seth17279@... <mailto:Seth17279@...>
>>> >> wrote:
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>>   *Since global warming is attacked as a flaky leftist hoax by the
>>> >>>   Republican candidates-in flagrant denial of the virtual consensus
>>> >>>   of climate sciuentists-- and Democrats and Obama no longer
>>>mention
>>> >>>   it as exemplified at Durban conference*
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>> where US negotiators agreed to do something about in 2020....
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>>   *Capitalism and the Accumulation of Catastrophe*
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>>
>>> >>> John Bellamy Foster
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/author/johnbellamyfoster>
>>> >>> *Review of the Month
>>> >>> <http://monthlyreview.org/section/review-of-the-month>*    more on
>>> >>> Environment/Science
>>> >>> <http://monthlyreview.org/content-areas/environment-science>,
>>> >>> Marxist Ecology
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/content-areas/marxism-ecology>
>>> >>> 90 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#>
>>> >>> Over the next few decades we are facing the possibility, indeed
>>>the 
>>> >>> probability, of global catastrophe on a level unprecedented in
>>>human 
>>> >>> history. The message of science is clear. As James Hansen, the
>>> >>> foremost climate scientist in the United States, has warned, this
>>> >>> may be ‚EURoeour last chance to save humanity.‚EUR? 1
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en1>In
>>> >>> order to understand the full nature of this threat and how it
>>>needs 
>>> >>> to be addressed, it is essential to get a historical perspective
>>>on 
>>> >>> how we got where we are, and how this is related to the current
>>> >>> socioeconomic system, namely capitalism.
>>> >>> Fundamental to the ecological critique of capitalism, I believe,
>>>is 
>>> >>>what world-historian William McNeill called the law of ‚EURoethe
>>> >>> conservation of catastrophe.‚EUR? For McNeill, who applied his
>>> >>> ‚EURoelaw‚EUR? to environmental crisis in particular,
>>> >>> ‚EURoecatastrophe is the underside of the human condition---a
>>>price 
>>> >>> we pay for being able to allter natural balances and to transform
>>> >>> the face of the earth through collective effort and the use of
>>> >>> tools.‚EUR? The better we become at altering and supposedly
>>> >>> controlling nature, he wrote, the more vulnerable human society
>>> >>> becomes to catastrophes that ‚EURoerecur perpetually on an
>>> >>> ever-increasing scale as our skills and knowledge grow.‚EUR? 2
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en2>The
>>> >>> potential for catastrophe is thus not only conserved, but it can
>>>be 
>>> >>> said to be cumulative, and reappears in an evermore colossal form
>>>in 
>>> >>> response to our growing transformation of the world around us.
>>> >>> In the age of climate change and other global planetary threats
>>> >>> McNeill‚EUR^(TM)s thesis on the conservation of catastrophe
>>>deserves 
>>> >>> close consideration. Rather than treating it as a universal aspect
>>> >>> of the human condition, however, this dynamic needs to be>>>understood 
>>> >>> in historically specific terms, focusing on the tendency toward
>>>the 
>>> >>> conservation of catastrophe under historical capitalism. The issue
>>> >>> then becomes one of understanding how the exploitation of nature
>>> >>> under the regime of capital has led over time to the accumulation
>>>of 
>>> >>> catastrophe. As Marx explained, it is necessary, in any critique
>>>of 
>>> >>> capitalism, to understand not only the enormous productive force
>>> >>> generated by capital, but also ‚EURoethe negative, i.e.
>>>destructive 
>>> >>> side‚EUR? of its interaction with the environment, ‚EURoefrom the
>>> >>> point of view of natural science.‚EUR? 3
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-e-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en3>
>>> >>> The Revenge of Nature
>>> >>> In analyzing the causes of te conservation of catastrophe,
>>>McNeill 
>>> >>> explained: ‚EURoeHuman purposes are extraordinarily fragile
>>>because 
>>> >>> they never take full account of the circumstances on which they
>>> >>> impinge, and every so often act as triggers, provoking results
>>>that 
>>> >>> were not imagined by those who precipitated them. It
>>>follows...that 
>>> >>> the more skillful human beings become at making over nnatural
>>> >>> balances to suit themselves, the greater the potential for
>>> >>> catastrophe.‚EUR? 4
>>>>>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en4>
>>> >>> If we were to look for an historical antecedent for this argument,
>>> >>> we could not do better than to turn to Frederick Engels‚EUR^(TM)s
>>> >>> /Dialectics of Nature/, written in the 1870s. In Engels‚EUR^(TM)s
>>> >>> words: ‚EURoeEvery day that passes we are acquiring a better
>>> >>> understanding of these [nature‚EUR^(TM)s] laws and getting to
>>> >>> perceive both the immediate and the more remote consequences of
>>>our 
>>> >>> interference with the traditional course of nature.‚EUR? As a
>>>result 
>>> >>> of the development of science, we are ‚EURoemore than ever in a
>>> >>> position to realize, and hence to control...the more remote
>>>natural 
>>> >>> consequences oof at least our day-to-day production
>>>activities.‚EUR?
>>> >>> Consequently, human beings increasingly ‚EURoenot only feel but
>>>also 
>>> >>> know their oneness with nature.‚EUR?
>>> >>> Nevertheless, the contradiction enters in when we recognize that
>>> >>> ‚EURoethe present mode of production is predominantly concerned
>>>only 
>>> >>> about the immediate, the most tangible result,‚EUR? and proceeds
>>>on 
>>> >>> that basis only. ‚EURoeSurprise is expressed that the more remote
>>> >>> effects of actions directed to this end [of economic development
>>>and 
>>> >>> wealth accumulation] turn out to be quite different, are mostly
>>> >>> quite the opposite in character.‚EUR? We discover too late that in
>>> >>> the pursuit of our self-interested and shortsighted ends we are
>>> >>> undermining the very conditions of production. ‚EURoeWhat cared
>>>the 
>>> >>> Spanish planters in Cuba,‚EUR? Engels asked, when ‚EURoethey
>>>burned 
>>> >>> down forests on the slopes of the mountains and obtained from the
>>> >>> ashes sufficient fertilizer for /one /generation of very highly
>>> >>> profitable coffee trees---what cared they that the heavy troopical
>>> >>> rainfall afterwards washed away the unprotected upper stratum of
>>>the 
>>> >>> soil, leaving behind only bare rock!‚EUR? In heedlessly removing
>>> >>> forests for the sake of production and profits people unwittingly
>>> >>> remove everything forests provide:
>>> >>> The people, who in Mesopotamia, Greece, Asia Minor and elsewhere,
>>> >>> destroyed the forests to obtain cultivable land, never dreamed
>>>that 
>>> >>> by removing along with the forests the collecting centers and
>>> >>> reservoirs of moisture that they were laying the basis for the
>>> >>> present forlorn state of those countries. When the Italians of the
>>> >>> Alps used up the pine forests on the southern slopes, so carefully
>>> >>> cherished on the northern slopes, they had no inkling that by
>>>doing 
>>> >>> so they were cutting at the roots of the dairy industry of their
>>> >>> region; they had still less inkling that they were thereby
>>>depriving 
>>> >>> their mountain springs of water for the greater part of the year
>>>and 
>>> >>> making it possible for them to pour still more furious torrents on
>>> >>> the plains during the rainy seasons.
>>> >>> All our growing science in this area, Engels added, was negated if
>>> >>> we could not address the reality of capitalist production and its
>>> >>> dire effects on the environment---thereby inviting the
>>> >>> ‚EURoerevenge‚EUR? of nature. 5
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en5>
>>> >>> The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw the development
>>>of 
>>> >>> an acute awareness among natural scientists of the destruction of
>>> >>> the natural environment, extending to concerns over local and
>>> >>> regional climate change. The power of the human social system to
>>> >>> transform the earth in destructive ways was recognized as never
>>> >>> before. This was evident in the work of such leading scientific
>>> >>> figures as Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740--99), Alexander von
>>> >>> Humboldt (1769--1859), Matthias Schleideiden (1804--81), Charles
>>> >>> Lyell (1797-1875), George Perkins Marsh (18011--82), Charles
>>>Darwin 
>>> >>> (1809--82), and Carl Nikolaus Fraas (18(1810--75). Growing
>>> >>> apprehensions regarding the disastrous consequencess of the human
>>> >>> transformation of the environment arose initially out of a
>>> >>> recognition of the negative, long-term effects of recent European
>>> >>> expansion into previously unknown or relatively inaccessible
>>> >>> regions, particularly the tropics and island environments, and to
>>> >>> some extent the Alpine regions of Europe. Moreover, the increasing
>>> >>> awareness of the human capacity to degrade whole regions
>>>encouraged 
>>> >>> scientists to investigate the role of human agency in the
>>> >>> desertification of parts of the Middle East, North Africa, and
>>> >>> Mediterranean Europe. 6
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en6>
>>> >>> The Swiss geologist De Saussure concluded in 1779, as a result of
>>> >>> his studies of Alpine lakes, that water levels had decreased in
>>> >>> modern times due to the cutting of forests. 7
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en7>Likewise
>>> >>> the German geographer Alexander von Humboldt determined in his
>>> >>> explorations that the water level in a lake in Venezuela, which he
>>> >>> visited in 1800, had diminished due to deforestation. In a
>>> >>> much-quoted passage, he wrote: ‚EURoeBy felling the trees which
>>> >>> cover the tops and sides of mountains, men in every climate
>>>prepare 
>>> >>> at once two calamities for future generations; want of fuel and
>>> >>> scarcity of water.‚EUR? 8
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en8>
>>> >>> The German botanist Schleiden, one of the pioneers in cell theory,
>>> >>> wrote extensively on the human destruction of the natural
>>> >>> environment. Schleiden was particularly concerned with climate
>>> >>> change in historical times, and saw humanity as a factor in
>>> >>> triggering such changes. In carrying out ‚EURoehis‚EUR? actions,
>>> >>> ‚EURoeman,‚EUR? he argued in /The Plant: A Biography /(1848),
>>>brings 
>>> >>> about ‚EURoeresults which surprise even himself, because he does
>>>not 
>>> >>> at the moment mark the gradually accumulating consequences of his
>>> >>> labours...nor led by necessary knowledge foresee the final
>>> >>> results.‚EUR? There were strong indications in the historical
>>> >>> records, Schleiden insisted, ‚EURoethat those countries which are
>>> >>> now treeless and arid deserts, part of Egypt, Syria, Persia, and
>>>so 
>>> >>> forth, were formerly thickly wooded, traversed by streams,‚EUR?
>>>but 
>>> >>> were now ‚EURoedried up or shrunk within narrow bounds‚EUR? and
>>> >>> exposed to the full force of the sun. He attributed these changes
>>>to 
>>> >>> the environment in historical time primarily to the disappearance
>>>of 
>>> >>> forests by human hand. ‚EURoeBehind him,‚EUR? Schleiden concluded,
>>> >>> ‚EURoehe [man] leaves the Desert, a deformed and ruined land‚EUR?
>>> >>> and is guilty of the ‚EURoethoughtless squandering of vegetable
>>> >>> treasures.... Here again in selfish pursuit of profit, and,
>>> >>> consciously or unconsciously, following the abominable principle
>>>of 
>>> >>> the great moral Vileness which one man has expressed, ‚EUR~/apr√®s
>>> >>> nous le d√©luge/,‚EUR^(TM) he [man] begins anew the work of
>>> >>> destruction.‚EUR? 9
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en9>
>>> >>> About the same time as Schleiden‚EUR^(TM)s discussion of climate
>>> >>> change, the German agronomist Fraas published his influential
>>>work, 
>>> >>> /Climate and the Plantworld /(1847), which focused on the human
>>> >>> destruction of the forests of Mesopotamia, Persia, Palestine,
>>>Egypt, 
>>> >>> and southern Europe. Arguing against seeing such environmental
>>> >>> change as due purely to natural causes, he emphasized the
>>>importance 
>>> >>> of human beings in generating more arid climates in these regions.
>>> >>> ‚EURoeThe developing culture of people,‚EUR? Fraas wrote,
>>> >>> ‚EURoeleaves a veritable desert behind it.‚EUR? 10
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en10>
>>> >>> Both Lyell and Darwin in England were concerned with the enormous
>>> >>> destruction that humanity had in recent times wrought on the
>>> >>> environment, and with questions of climate change. Lyell noted in
>>> >>> his /Principles of Geology /in 1832: ‚EURoeThe felling of forests
>>> >>> has been attended, in many countries, by a diminution of rain, as
>>>in 
>>> >>> Barbados and Jamaica.‚EUR? Looking at these processes
>>>dialectically, 
>>> >>> he argued: ‚EURoeThere can be no doubt that the state of the
>>> >>> climate, especially the humidity of the atmosphere, influences
>>> >>> vegetation, and that, in its turn, vegetation reacts upon the
>>> >>> climate.‚EUR? Lyell called this ‚EURoethe reciprocal action of
>>> >>> vegetation and climate.‚EUR? Humanity increasingly interfered with
>>> >>> this reciprocal action by clearing forests. Even more important
>>>than 
>>> >>> deforestation in altering the overall environment, for Lyell, was
>>> >>> ‚EURoethe drainage of lakes and marshes,‚EUR? since this greatly
>>> >>> modified ‚EURoethe general climate of a district.‚EUR? 11
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en11>
>>> >>> Darwin provided his most impassioned testimony on the human
>>> >>> destruction of the environment in relation to his visit to the
>>> >>> isolated island of St. Helena during the famous voyage of the
>>> >>> Beagle. In his 1839 /Journal of Researches into the Geology and
>>> >>> Natural History of the Various Countries Visited During the Voyage
>>> >>> of the HMS Beagle /he commented extensively on the devastating
>>> >>> deforestation wrought since the introduction of goats to the
>>>island 
>>> >>> at the beginning of European settlement in 1502. ‚EURoeSo late as
>>> >>> the year 1716,‚EUR? he wrote,
>>> >>> there were many trees [in the area previously called the Great
>>> >>> Wood], but in 1724 the old trees had mostly fallen; and as goats
>>>and 
>>> >>> hogs had been suffered to range about, all the young trees had
>>>been 
>>> >>> killed.... TThe extent of surface probably covered by wood at a
>>> >>> former period, is estimated at no less than two thousand acres; at
>>> >>> the present day scarcely a single tree can be found there. It is
>>> >>> also said that in 1709 there were quantities of dead trees in
>>>Sandy 
>>> >>> Bay; this place is now so utterly desert that nothing but so well
>>> >>> attested an account [the records left by Alexander Beatson] could
>>> >>> have made me believe that they could ever have grown there. 12
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en12>
>>> >>> The growing anxiety of scientists over human destruction of the
>>> >>> natural environment, including local and regional climate change,
>>> >>> had a considerable effect on Marx and Engels. Not only did they
>>>pay 
>>> >>> constant attention to developments in natural science---they were
>>> >>> close students of the worrk of Schleiden, Fraas, Lyell, and
>>>Darwin, 
>>> >>> and were familiar with the contributions of De Saussure and
>>> >>> Humboldt---but they added to this their owwn
>>>historical-materialist
>>> >>> critique of capitalist- ecological destruction. Marx admired
>>>Fraas, 
>>> >>> both as an agronomist and for his analysis of climate change. He
>>> >>> regarded Fraas‚EUR^(TM)s /Climate and the Plantworld/, in
>>> >>> particular, as ‚EURoeproving that climate and flora change in
>>> >>> /historical /times,‚EUR? i.e. in the period of human history.
>>> >>> Summing up Fraas‚EUR^(TM)s views, Marx wrote: ‚EURoeWith
>>> >>> cultivation---depending oon its degree---the
>>>‚EUR~moisture‚EUR^(TM)
>>> >>> so beloved by the peasaants gets lost (hence also the plants
>>>migrate 
>>> >>> from south to north).... The first efffect of cultivation is
>>>useful, 
>>> >>> but finally devastating through deforestation, etc.... The
>>> >>> conclusion is that cultivation---when it proceeds in natural
>>>growth 
>>> >>> and is not </consciously controlled /(as a bourgeois he [Fraas]
>>> >>> naturally does not reach this point)---leaves deserts behind it.
>>> >>> Persia, Mesopotamia, ettc., Greece. So once again an unconscious
>>> >>> socialist tendency!‚EUR? 13
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en13>Likewise
>>> >>> Engels took careful notes from Fraas‚EUR^(TM)s book, writing that
>>>it 
>>> >>> constituted ‚EURoethe main proof that civilization is an
>>> >>> antagonistic process that, in its form up to the present, has
>>> >>> exhausted the land, devastated the forests, rendered the land
>>> >>> unfertile for its original crops and made the climate worse.
>>> >>> Prairies and the increased heat and dryness of the climate are the
>>> >>> consequences of culture [civilization].‚EUR? 14
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en14>In
>>> >>> /Capital /Marx echoed Schleiden‚EUR^(TM)s earlier argument,
>>> >>> contending that capital accumulation is heedless in the
>>>destruction 
>>> >>> of its own human and natural bases, operating on the principle of
>>> >>> ‚EURoe/Apr√®s moi le d√©luge!/‚EUR? 15
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en15>
>>> >>> At all times the critique of environmental destruction developed
>>>by 
>>> >>> Marx and Engels pointed to the conservation of catastrophe under
>>> >>> capitalism. Engels wrote in /The Dialectics of Nature /that human
>>> >>> beings, through conscious action in accord with rational science,
>>> >>> are capable of rising to a considerable extent above ‚EURoethe
>>> >>> influence of unforeseen effects and uncontrolled forces.‚EUR? Yet,
>>> >>> even with respect to ‚EURoethe most developed peoples of the
>>>present 
>>> >>> day‚EUR? there is ‚EURoea colossal disproportion between the
>>> >>> proposed aims and the results arrived at,‚EUR? such ‚EURoethat
>>> >>> unforeseen effects predominate and...the uncontrolled forces are
>>> >>> more powerfuul than those set into motion according to plan.‚EUR?
>>> >>> The reason for this was that as long as production, in
>>> >>> class-dominated society, was itself ‚EURoesubject to the interplay
>>> >>> of unintended effects from uncontrolled forces‚EUR? and achieved
>>> >>> ‚EURoeits desired end only by way of exception,‚EUR? more often
>>> >>> producing ‚EURoethe exact opposite,‚EUR? a rational approach to
>>> >>> nature was impossible. 16
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en16>
>>> >>> Marx‚EUR^(TM)s most direct contribution to the critique of
>>> >>> ecological destruction of course was his theory of metabolic rift,
>>> >>> which I have examined extensively elsewhere. This was derived from
>>> >>> what Marx called ‚EURoeLiebig‚EUR^(TM)s soil exhaustion
>>>theory,‚EUR? 
>>> >>> whereby industrialized agriculture by removing the nutrients (such
>>> >>> as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) from the soil and shipping
>>> >>> them to the cities, sometimes hundreds and thousands of miles,
>>> >>> undermined the recirculation of these nutrients back to the soil.
>>> >>> Marx employed the concept of metabolism to explain the necessary
>>> >>> relation of human beings to the earth through production, and
>>>argued 
>>> >>> that a rift or break had developed in the metabolic cycle. Hence,
>>> >>> this ‚EURoeeternal natural condition for the lasting fertility of
>>> >>> the soil‚EUR? demanded its ‚EURoesystematic restoration.‚EUR?
>>> >>> Nevertheless, the metabolic rift was ‚EURoeirreparable‚EUR? for
>>> >>> capitalist society. Driven by its accumulation motive, capital was
>>> >>> unable to limit its destructiveness or to follow the precepts of
>>> >>> natural science. Indeed, ‚EURoethe more a country proceeds from
>>> >>> large-scale industry as the background of its development,‚EUR?
>>>Marx 
>>> >>> argued, ‚EURoethe more rapid is the process of destruction.‚EUR?
>>>The 
>>> >>> problems created by this rift in the human-natural metabolism
>>>would 
>>> >>> therefore accumulate, even if they were shifted around---creating
>>>a 
>>> >>> growing imperative of ecological rrestoration. Indeed, it was here
>>> >>> that Marx stressed that it was ‚EURoeone of Liebig‚EUR^(TM)s
>>> >>> immortal merits‚EUR? to have developed ‚EURoefrom the point of
>>>view 
>>> >>> of natural science /the negative, i.e. destructive side of modern
>>> >>> agriculture/‚EUR? (emphasis added). 17
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en17>
>>> >>> Similar views on the rising scale of ecological degradation in
>>> >>> capitalist society were to be expressed by E. Ray Lankester, a
>>> >>> friend of Darwin, Huxley, Marx, and William Morris, and the
>>>leading 
>>> >>> Darwinian biologist in England in the generation after Darwin
>>> >>> himself. Lankester read and benefitted from Marx‚EUR^(TM)s
>>>/Capital 
>>> >>> /and was one of the two members of the British Royal Society at
>>> >>> Marx‚EUR^(TM)s funeral. He was a strong materialist and exhibited
>>> >>> socialist sympathies, albeit of the more Fabian variety. He was
>>>also 
>>> >>> the most powerful critic of ecological destruction in his time,
>>> >>> known for his essays on the extinction of species and human
>>> >>> degradation of the environment. 18
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en18>In
>>> >>> his article, ‚EURoeThe Effacement of Nature by Man,‚EUR? written
>>> >>> before the First World War, Lankester pointed to the unconscious
>>> >>> destruction of the earth. ‚EURoeVery few people,‚EUR? he wrote,
>>> >>> have any idea of the extent to which man...has actively modifiied
>>> >>> the face of Nature, the vast herds of animals he has destroyed,
>>>the 
>>> >>> forests he has burnt up, the deserts he has produced, and the
>>>rivers 
>>> >>> he has polluted. It is [in]...the ccutting down and burning
>>>forests 
>>> >>> of large trees that man has done the most harm to himself and the
>>> >>> other living occupants of many regions of the earth‚EUR^(TM)s
>>> >>> surface.... Foorests have an immense effect on climate, causing
>>> >>> humidity of both the air and the soil, and give rise to moderate
>>>and 
>>> >>> persistent instead of torrential streams.... Areas of desstruction
>>> >>> of vegetation [were] often (though not always), both in Central
>>>Asia 
>>> >>> and North Africa (Egypt, etc.), started by the deliberate
>>> >>> destruction of forest by man.
>>> >>> ‚EURoeIt is not ‚EUR~science,‚EUR^(TM)‚EUR? Lankester insisted,
>>> >>> ‚EURoethat will be to blame for these horrors‚EUR?: the
>>>destruction 
>>> >>> of the earth and the natural environment of living species,
>>> >>> undermining the conditions of ‚EURoefuture generations.‚EUR?
>>>Rather, 
>>> >>> should civilization-threatening disasters ‚EURoecome about they
>>>will 
>>> >>> be due to the reckless greed and mere insect-like increase of
>>> >>> humanity.‚EUR? Although depicting uncontrolled population growth
>>>as 
>>> >>> a factor in ecological degradation, Lankester had no doubt about
>>>the 
>>> >>> main force at work, declaring elsewhere that capitalist businesses
>>> >>> were ‚EURoenecessarily by their nature, devoid of conscience,‚EUR?
>>> >>> and were impersonal mechanisms ‚EURoedriven by laws of supply and
>>> >>> demand.‚EUR? 19
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en19>
>>> >>> Lankester was the mentor of Arthur Tansely, another materialist
>>> >>> scientist and Fabian-style socialist, who founded the British
>>> >>> Ecological Association. Tansley is most famous for introducing the
>>> >>> concept of ecosystem‚EUR"in conflict with the idealist, indeed
>>> >>> outright racist, strand of ecology, associated with General Smuts
>>>in 
>>> >>> South Africa. The socialist wing of the ecological
>>> >>> movement---including leading Marxist scientists such as Laancelot
>>> >>> Hogben and Hyman Levy, but also figures like Tansley and H.G.
>>> >>> Wells---were strongly opposed to the idealist-racist ecology 
>>> >>> promoted by SSmuts and his adherents. But it was Tansley who 
>>> >>> introduced the most effective critique.
>>> >>> In his famous 1935 article on ‚EURoeThe Use and Abuse of 
>>> >>> Vegetational Concepts and Terms,‚EUR? Tansley developed the 
>>> >>> ecosystem concept as the basis for a materialist ecology, relying 
>>> >>> heavily on the dialectical-systems analysis provided in 
>>> >>> Levy‚EUR^(TM)s /The Universe of Science/. Central to 
>>> >>> Tansley‚EUR^(TM)s argument was the recognition of ‚EURoethe 
>>> >>> destructive human activities of the modern world.‚EUR? Humanity, 
>>>he 
>>> >>> argued, was ‚EURoean exceptionally powerful biotic factor which 
>>> >>> increasingly upsets the equilibrium of previous ecosystems and 
>>> >>> eventually destroys them.‚EUR? Human beings were thus capable of 
>>> >>> what he called ‚EURoecatastrophic destruction‚EUR? in relation to 
>>> >>> the environment. This meant that scientific-materialist ecology 
>>> >>> needed to be introduced as a rational counter to such irrational 
>>> >>> tendencies imbedded in contemporary society. 20 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en20>
>>> >>> At about the same time that Tansley introduced the ecosystem 
>>> >>> concept, another protégé of Lankester, the esteemed British 
>>> >>> biologist, J.B.S. Haldane, one of the originators of the 
>>> >>> neo-Darwinian synthesis and a Marxist, wrote an essay entitled 
>>> >>> ‚EURoeBack to Nature,‚EUR? critically taking up this slogan 
>>>already 
>>> >>> present in his time. Haldane argued that humanity might have to 
>>>give 
>>> >>> up some of the wasteful ‚EURoeartificialities‚EUR? of commodity 
>>> >>> society in order to maintain a sustainable relation to the earth. 
>>> >>> Yet, the real need in this respect, he insisted, was to create an 
>>> >>> entirely different socioeconomic system, beyond capitalism; in 
>>>which 
>>> >>> case the more essential aspects of civilization, representing 
>>> >>> genuine human needs, could be preserved. 21 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en21>
>>> >>> Hence, even prior to the Second World War, ecologists, 
>>>particularly 
>>> >>> those who combined their concern for nature with socialist views, 
>>> >>> were clear that a radical change in the relation between 
>>>production 
>>> >>> and the environment was needed---one requiring foresight and 
>>>planning.
>>> >>> The Heterogeneity of Ends and the Need for Rational Ecological 
>>>Planning
>>> >>> The argument that I have advanced up to this point suggests that 
>>> >>> ecological science can be thought of as arising out of the growing 
>>> >>> conflict between the developing capitalist system and the 
>>>planetary 
>>> >>> environment. The birth of scientific ecology represented the 
>>>slowly 
>>> >>> emerging recognition of what Marx called the ‚EURoenegative, i.e. 
>>> >>> destructive side‚EUR? of industrialization ‚EURoefrom the point of 
>>> >>> view of natural science.‚EUR? Some of the most perceptive 
>>> >>> scientists, especially those with a socialist bent, recognized 
>>> >>> already in the nineteenth century (and in the opening decades of 
>>>the 
>>> >>> twentieth century) that humanity had become a natural force, 
>>> >>> unconsciously unleashing unprecedented ecological destruction on 
>>>the 
>>> >>> earth. Going against the dominant celebration of capitalist 
>>> >>> industrialization as an unalloyed triumph over nature, some of the 
>>> >>> most acute observers in the scientific community were aware, a 
>>> >>> century or more ago, that catastrophe in the human relation to 
>>> >>> nature had not been overcome, but rather had been in a sense 
>>> >>> conserved, even accumulating in potential with the development of 
>>> >>> human productive powers. Just as the short-term power of humanity 
>>> >>> over nature increased along with the scale of the economy, so did 
>>> >>> the long-run potential for ecological (and economic) catastrophe.
>>> >>> For dialectical thinkers like Marx and Engels the 
>>>social-ecological 
>>> >>> problem was seen through the prism of a materialist-dialectical 
>>> >>> philosophy of revolutionary social change. This can be understood 
>>>in 
>>> >>> terms of what is known as the ‚EURoeheterogeneity (or heterogony) 
>>>of 
>>> >>> ends‚EUR?---"a concept introduced by the German psychologist and 
>>> >>> philosopher Wilhelm Wundt in his /Ethics /(1886). Wundt argued 
>>>that 
>>> >>> individual and collective goals shift over time as a result of the 
>>> >>> unforeseen effects on the natural and social environment. The 
>>> >>> pursuit of immediate aims often produces unintended negative 
>>> >>> consequences, leading to radically new conditions and actions---a 
>>> >>> ‚EURoemutation of motives.‚EUR? For Wundt the contradicttion 
>>> >>> associated with the heterogeneity of ends was most tragically 
>>> >>> apparent in societies ‚EURoewhere egoism rules supreme.‚EUR? The 
>>> >>> question there was: ‚EURoeWhat do the living care for future 
>>> >>> generations? ‚EUR~/Apr√®s nous le d√©luge/,‚EUR^(TM) they will 
>>>say, 
>>> >>> until the flood sweeps them away with the words on their 
>>>lips.‚EUR? 
>>> >>> 22 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en22>Yet, 
>>> >>> the heterogeneity of ends also stood for the capacity of human 
>>> >>> beings to respond in radically new ways to changing conditions.
>>> >>> Ironically, given the nature of Wundt‚EUR^(TM)s critique, the 
>>> >>> heterogeneity of ends is often associated in today‚EUR^(TM)s 
>>> >>> scholarship with ‚EURoeinvisible hand explanations‚EUR? of social 
>>> >>> organization such as those of Adam Smith, whereby the pursuit of 
>>> >>> individual greed is seen as leading paradoxically to the greater 
>>> >>> good for society as a whole. Conservative twentieth-century 
>>>thinkers 
>>> >>> like Michael Polanyi and Friedrich Hayek expanded this into a 
>>>theory 
>>> >>> of ‚EURoespontaneous order,‚EUR? fundamental to contemporary 
>>> >>> neoliberalism. In this view, the unintended consequences of 
>>>selfish 
>>> >>> and acquisitive behavior, if left to themselves, inevitably 
>>>produce 
>>> >>> social equilibrium, in an analogue to divine providence. This has 
>>> >>> generated a kind of secular religion dominating the approach to 
>>> >>> economy and environment in capitalist society, which supposedly 
>>> >>> obviates the need for a social role for science, rational 
>>>planning, 
>>> >>> or democratic agency. 23 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en23>
>>> >>> Yet, the more dialectical view of the heterogeneity of ends 
>>> >>> associated with thinkers such as Hegel, Marx, and Wundt, is far 
>>> >>> removed from this one-sided notion of spontaneous order. It 
>>>suggests 
>>> >>> instead that the unintended consequences of our actions can be 
>>> >>> negative as well as positive, producing disequilibrium as well as 
>>> >>> equilibrium, destruction as well as construction---and giving rise 
>>> >>> to a radical transmutation of motives in response to 
>>> >>> crises/catastrophes. Wundt clearly drew his inspiration in part 
>>>from 
>>> >>> Hegel‚EUR^(TM)s complex notion of the ‚EURoecunning of 
>>>reason,‚EUR? 
>>> >>> which emphasized that the ‚EURoepassions of individuals‚EUR? 
>>> >>> governing historical action frequently lead to tragedy, loss, and 
>>> >>> destruction‚EUR"out of which human reason, for Hegel, ultimately 
>>> >>> triumphs (by means of the modern bourgeois state). 24 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en24>
>>> >>> Hence, when Marx argued (from a socialist-materialist rather than 
>>> >>> liberal-idealist standpoint) that there was a tendency for 
>>> >>> cultivation to leave deserts behind it, and that this necessitated 
>>> >>> rational, scientific planning---constituting what he called 
>>>‚EURoean 
>>> >>> unconscious socialist tenndency‚EUR?---he was presenting a 
>>> >>> dialectical notion of the heteroogeneity of ends with respect to 
>>> >>> human-natural interactions. In this view, the advent of ecological 
>>> >>> crisis/catastrophe necessitates /conscious, collective action/ 
>>>aimed 
>>> >>> at the ‚EURoesystematic restoration‚EUR? of the human metabolism 
>>> >>> with nature.
>>> >>> What was being called for, in the emerging ecological thought of 
>>>the 
>>> >>> nineteenth and early twentieth century, was the rational 
>>>regulation 
>>> >>> of the human-nature relation. However, ‚EURoethis regulation‚EUR? 
>>>of 
>>> >>> the social-ecological metabolism, Engels observed, ‚EURoerequires 
>>> >>> something more than knowledge. It requires a complete revolution 
>>>in 
>>> >>> our hitherto existing mode of production, and simultaneously a 
>>> >>> revolution in our whole contemporary social order.‚EUR? 25 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en25>
>>> >>> ‚EURoeSo active has civilization been‚EUR? in the 
>>> >>> ‚EURoedestruction‚EUR? of natural conditions, Marx critically 
>>> >>> observed in relation to forests, that ‚EURoeeverything that has 
>>>been 
>>> >>> done for their conservation and protection is insignificant in 
>>> >>> comparison.‚EUR? 26 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en26>The 
>>> >>> contradictory result of such meager attempts to protect natural 
>>> >>> conditions under the prevailing social order is often simply to 
>>> >>> strengthen the main tendency to destruction. Thus the capitalist 
>>> >>> system has long sought to overcome problems of (1) deforestation, 
>>>by 
>>> >>> very limited reforestation; (2) drought and desertification, 
>>>simply 
>>> >>> through irrigation and drawing down groundwater sources; (3) 
>>>species 
>>> >>> extinction, by protecting a few keystone species; and (4) 
>>>depletion 
>>> >>> of soil nutrients, through the production of synthetic 
>>>fertilizers. 
>>> >>> This constitutes an overall ameliorative approach to conservation, 
>>> >>> which, due to the very limited and contradictory nature of the 
>>> >>> ‚EURoesolutions,‚EUR? is in many ways self-defeating, reinforcing 
>>> >>> the accumulation of catastrophe. Thus, the overuse of nitrogen and 
>>> >>> phosphorus fertilizers, introduced in response to systematic soil 
>>> >>> depletion, has contributed massively today---a century and a half 
>>> >>> afteer the soil depletion problem was diagnosed by Liebig---to the 
>>> >>> eutrophhication of surface water bodies (a condition in which 
>>> >>> nutrient-rich waters induce the growth of algae resulting in the 
>>> >>> depletion of dissolved oxygen, threatening fish and other aquatic 
>>> >>> animals). This has become a major factor in the generation of dead 
>>> >>> zones in coastal waters. The failure to arrest rampant 
>>> >>> deforestation, desertification, and species extinction, evident 
>>>over 
>>> >>> the centuries, is now worsening global climate change, as each of 
>>> >>> these destructive impacts on the local and regional environments 
>>> >>> interact with global warming.
>>> >>> All of this points to the unavoidable reality that in a regime in 
>>> >>> which capital accumulation is the beginning-and-end-all, a 
>>> >>> sustainable relation to the environment is impossible. 
>>> >>> ‚EURoeDisaster capitalism,‚EUR? as Naomi Klein has called it, is a 
>>> >>> reflection, not simply of neoliberalism, but of the underlying 
>>> >>> tendencies of the system itself. 27 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en27>So 
>>> >>> universally disastrous has capitalism become today that our only 
>>> >>> hope is that a radical mutation of motives may arise as a result 
>>>of 
>>> >>> these changed conditions---giving birth to a historic movement to 
>>> >>> reverse the course of deestruction.
>>> >>> Planetary Capitalism and Revolt
>>> >>> In the twenty-first century it is customary to view the rise of 
>>> >>> planetary ecological problems as a /surprising development/ 
>>>scarcely 
>>> >>> conceivable prior to the last few decades. It is here, however, 
>>>that 
>>> >>> we have the most to learn from the analysis of nineteenth-century 
>>> >>> thinkers who played a role in the development of ecology, 
>>>including 
>>> >>> both early ecological scientists and classical historical 
>>> >>> materialists. Science has long warned of the negative, destructive 
>>> >>> side of the human transformation of the earth---"a warning which 
>>>the 
>>> >>> system, driven by its own imperatives, has continually sought to 
>>> >>> downplay.
>>> >>> Indeed, what distinguishes our time from earlier centuries is not 
>>>so 
>>> >>> much the /conservation of catastrophe/, which has long been 
>>> >>> recognized, but rather the accelerated pace at which such 
>>> >>> destruction is now manifesting itself, i.e., what I am calling the 
>>> >>> /accumulation of catastrophe/. The desertification arising in 
>>> >>> pre-capitalist times, partly through human action, manifested 
>>>itself 
>>> >>> over centuries, even millennia. Today changes in the land, the 
>>> >>> atmosphere, the oceans, indeed the entire life-support system of 
>>>the 
>>> >>> earth, are the product of mere decades. If in the past, Darwin was 
>>> >>> struck that in a mere three centuries after European colonization, 
>>> >>> the ecology of the island of St. Helena had been destroyed to the 
>>> >>> point that it was reduced to ‚EURoedesert‚EUR?---today, in only 
>>>two 
>>> >>> generations,, we have altered the biogeochemical processes of the 
>>> >>> entire planet. 28 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en28>
>>> >>> The absence of a historical perspective on the conservation, even 
>>> >>> accumulation, of catastrophe is a major barrier to needed change 
>>>in 
>>> >>> our time. Many environmentalists, including some who perceive 
>>> >>> themselves as being on the left, persist in believing that we can 
>>> >>> address our immense and growing ecological problems without 
>>>altering 
>>> >>> our fundamental social-production relationships. All that is 
>>> >>> necessary in this view is the combined magic of green technology 
>>>and 
>>> >>> green markets. Short-term fixes are presumed to be adequate 
>>> >>> solutions, while society remains on the same essential course as 
>>>before.
>>> >>> Indeed, the dominant perspective on ecology can be characterized, 
>>>I 
>>> >>> believe, as consisting of three successive stages of denial: (1) 
>>>the 
>>> >>> denial altogether of the planetary ecological crisis (or its human 
>>> >>> cause); (2) the denial that the ecological crisis is fundamentally 
>>> >>> due to the system of production in which we live, namely 
>>>capitalism; 
>>> >>> and (3) the denial that capitalism is constitutionally incapable 
>>>of 
>>> >>> overcoming this global ecological threat---with capital now being 
>>> >>> presented instead as the savior of the eenvironment.
>>> >>> The first stage of ecological denial is easy to understand. This 
>>>is 
>>> >>> the form of denial represented by Exxon-Mobil. Such outright 
>>>denial 
>>> >>> of the destructive consequences of their actions is the automatic 
>>> >>> response of corporations generally when faced with the prospect of 
>>> >>> environmental regulations, which would negatively affect their 
>>> >>> bottom lines. It is also the form of absolute denial promoted by 
>>> >>> climate-change denialists themselves, who categorically reject the 
>>> >>> reality of human agency in global climate change.
>>> >>> The second stage of denial, a retreat from the first, is to admit 
>>> >>> there is a problem,while dissociating it from the larger 
>>> >>> socioeconomic system. The famous IPAT formula, i.e. Environmental 
>>> >>> Impact = Population x Consumption x Technology (which amounts to 
>>> >>> saying that these are the three factors behind our environmental 
>>> >>> problems/solutions), has been used by some to suggest that 
>>> >>> population growth, the consumption habits of most individuals, and 
>>> >>> inappropriate technology carry the totality of blame for 
>>> >>> environmental degradation. The answer then is sustainable 
>>> >>> population, sustainable consumption, and sustainable technology. 
>>> >>> This approach, though seemingly matter-of-fact, and deceptively 
>>> >>> radical, derives its acceptability for the vested interests from 
>>>the 
>>> >>> fact that it generally serves to disguise the more fundamental 
>>> >>> reality of the treadmill of capitalist production itself. 29 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en29>
>>> >>> The third stage of denial, a last-ditch defense, and exhibiting a 
>>> >>> greater level of desperation on the part of the established order, 
>>> >>> is, I would argue, the most dangerous of all. It admits that the 
>>> >>> environmental crisis is wrapped up with the existence of 
>>>capitalism, 
>>> >>> but argues that what we need is an entirely new kind of 
>>>capitalism: 
>>> >>> variously called ‚EURoesustainable capitalism,‚EUR? ‚EURoegreen 
>>> >>> capitalism,‚EUR? ‚EURoenatural capitalism,‚EUR? and ‚EURoeclimate 
>>> >>> capitalism‚EUR? by thinkers as various as Al Gore, Paul Hawken, 
>>> >>> Amory and L. Hunter Lovins, and Jonathon Porritt. 30 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en30>The 
>>> >>> argument here varies but usually begins with the old trope that 
>>> >>> capitalism is the most efficient economic system possible---a form 
>>> >>> of ‚EURoespontaneous order‚EUR? arising from an innvisible 
>>> >>> hand---and that the answer to ecological problems is to make it 
>>> >>> moree efficient still by internalizing costs on the environment 
>>> >>> previously externalized by the system.
>>> >>> Aside from the presumed magic of the market itself, and moral 
>>>claims 
>>> >>> as to ‚EURoethe greening of corporations,‚EUR? this is supposed to 
>>> >>> be achieved by means of a black box of technological wonders. 
>>> >>> Implicit in all such views is the notion that capitalism can be 
>>>made 
>>> >>> sustainable, without altering its accumulation or economic growth 
>>> >>> imperative and without breaking with the dominant social 
>>>relations. 
>>> >>> The exponential growth of the system /ad infinitum /is possible, 
>>>we 
>>> >>> are told, while simultaneously generating a sustainable relation 
>>>to 
>>> >>> the planet. This of course runs up against what Herman Daly has 
>>> >>> called the Impossibility Theorem: If the whole world were to have 
>>>an 
>>> >>> ecological footprint the size of the United States we would need 
>>> >>> multiple planets. 31 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en31>The 
>>> >>> idea that such a development process can persist permanently on a 
>>> >>> single planet (and indeed that we are not at this point already 
>>> >>> confronting earthly limits) is of course an exercise in delusion, 
>>> >>> bordering on belief in the supernatural.
>>> >>> ‚EURoeCapitalism,‚EUR? as the great environmental economist K. 
>>> >>> William Kapp once wrote, is ‚EURoean economy of unpaid costs.‚EUR? 
>>> >>> 32 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en32>It 
>>> >>> can persist and even prosper only insofar as it is able to 
>>> >>> externalize its costs on the mass of the population and the 
>>> >>> surrounding environment. Whenever the destruction is too severe 
>>>the 
>>> >>> system simply seeks to engineer another spatial fix. Yet, a 
>>> >>> planetary capitalism is from this standpoint a contradiction in 
>>> >>> terms: it means that there is nowhere finally to externalize the 
>>> >>> social and environmental costs of capitalist destruction (we 
>>>cannot 
>>> >>> ship our toxic waste into outer space!), and no external resources 
>>> >>> to draw upon in the face of the enormous squandering of resources 
>>> >>> inherent to the system (we can‚EUR^(TM)t solve our problems by 
>>> >>> mining the moon!).
>>> >>> Market-based solutions to climate change, such as emissions 
>>>trading, 
>>> >>> have been shown to promote profits, and to facilitate economic 
>>> >>> growth and financial wealth, while /increasing/ carbon emissions. 
>>> >>> From an environmental standpoint, therefore, they are worse than 
>>> >>> nothing---since they stand in the way of effective action. Nor are 
>>> >>> the technologies most acceptable to the system (since not 
>>>requiring 
>>> >>> changes in property relations) the answer. So-called ‚EURoeclean 
>>> >>> coal‚EUR? or carbon capture and storage technologies are 
>>> >>> economically unfeasible and ecologically dubious, and serve mainly 
>>> >>> as an ideological justification for keeping coal-fired plants 
>>>going.
>>> >>> Worse still, are geoengineering schemes like dumping sulfur 
>>> >>> particles in the atmosphere or iron filings in the ocean (the 
>>>first 
>>> >>> in order to deflect the sun‚EUR^(TM)s rays, the second in order to 
>>> >>> promote algal growth to increase ocean absorption of carbon). 
>>>These 
>>> >>> schemes carry with them the potential for even greater ecological 
>>> >>> disasters: in the first case, this could lead to a reduction of 
>>> >>> photosynthesis, in the second the expansion of dead zones. 
>>>Remember 
>>> >>> the Sorcerer‚EUR^(TM)s Apprentice! 33 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en33>
>>> >>> The potential for the accumulation of catastrophe on a truly 
>>> >>> planetary level as a result of geoengineering technology is so 
>>>great 
>>> >>> that it would be absolute folly to proceed in this way---simply in 
>>> >>> order to avoid chhanges in the mode of production, i.e., a 
>>> >>> fundamental transformation of our way of life, property relations, 
>>> >>> and metabolism with nature.
>>> >>> Science tells us that we are crossing planetary boundaries 
>>> >>> everywhere we look, from climate change, to ocean acidification, 
>>>to 
>>> >>> species destruction, to freshwater shortages, to chemical 
>>>pollution 
>>> >>> of air, water, soil, and humans. The latest warning sign is the 
>>> >>> advent of what is called ‚EURoeextreme weather‚EUR?---a direct 
>>> >>> outgrowth of climate change. As Hannsen says: ‚EURoeGlobal warming 
>>> >>> increases the intensity of droughts and heat waves, and thus the 
>>> >>> area of forest fires. However, because a warmer atmosphere holds 
>>> >>> more water vapor, global warming must also increase the intensity 
>>>of 
>>> >>> the other extreme of the hydrologic cycle---meaning heavier 
>>>rrains, 
>>> >>> more extreme floods, and more intense storms driven by latent 
>>> >>> heat.‚EUR? Scientists involved in the new area of 
>>> >>> climate-attribution science, where extreme weather events are 
>>> >>> examined for their climate signatures, are now arguing that we are 
>>> >>> rapidly approaching a situation where the proverbial 
>>> >>> ‚EURoe‚EUR~hundred-year‚EUR^(TM) flood‚EUR? no longer occurs 
>>>simply 
>>> >>> once a century, but every few years. Natural catastrophes are thus 
>>> >>> likely to become more severe and more frequent occurrences in the 
>>> >>> lives of all living beings. The hope of some scientists is that 
>>>this 
>>> >>> will finally wake up humanity to its true danger. 34 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en34>
>>> >>> How are we to understand the challenge of the enormous 
>>>accumulation 
>>> >>> of catastrophe, and the no less massive human action required to 
>>> >>> address this? In the 1930s John Maynard Keynes wrote an essay 
>>> >>> entitled ‚EURoeEconomic Possibilities of Our Grandchildren,‚EUR? 
>>> >>> aimed at defending capitalism in response to revolutionary social 
>>> >>> challenges then arising. Keynes argued that we should rely for at 
>>> >>> least a couple more generations on the convenient lie of the 
>>> >>> Smithian invisible hand---accepting greed as the basiss of a 
>>> >>> spontaneous economic order. We should therefore continue the 
>>> >>> pretense that ‚EURoefair is foul and foul is fair‚EUR? for the 
>>>sake 
>>> >>> of the greater accumulation of wealth in society that such an 
>>> >>> approach would bring. Eventually, in the time of our 
>>> >>> ‚EURoegrandchildren‚EUR?---mayybe a ‚EURoehundred years‚EUR? hence 
>>> >>> (i.e., by the early 2030s)‚EUR"Keynes assumed, the added wealth 
>>> >>> created by these means would be great enough that we could begin 
>>>to 
>>> >>> tell the truth: that foul is foul and fair is fair. It would then 
>>>be 
>>> >>> necessary for humanity to address the enormous inequalities and 
>>> >>> injustices produced by the system, engaging in a full-scale 
>>> >>> redistribution of wealth, and a radical transformation of the ends 
>>> >>> of production. 35 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en35>
>>> >>> Yet, the continued pursuit of Keynes‚EUR^(TM)s convenient lie over 
>>> >>> the last eight decades has led to a world far more polarized and 
>>> >>> beset with contradictions than he could have foreseen. It is a 
>>>world 
>>> >>> prey to the enormous unintended consequences of accumulation 
>>>without 
>>> >>> limits: namely, global economic stagnation, financial crisis, and 
>>> >>> planetary ecological destruction. Keynes, though aware of some of 
>>> >>> the negative economic aspects of capitalist production, had no 
>>>real 
>>> >>> understanding of the ecological perils---of which scientists had 
>>> >>> already long been warning. Today these perils are impossible to 
>>> >>> overlook.
>>> >>> Faced with impending ecological catastrophe, it is more necessary 
>>> >>> than ever to abandon Keynes‚EUR^(TM)s convenient lie and espouse 
>>>the 
>>> >>> truth: that foul is foul and fair is fair. Capitalism, the society 
>>> >>> of ‚EURoe/apr√®s moi le d√©luge/!‚EUR? is a system that /fouls/ 
>>>its 
>>> >>> own nest---both the human-social conditions and the wider natural 
>>> >>> envvironment on which it depends. The accumulation of capital is 
>>>at 
>>> >>> the same time accumulation of catastrophe, not only for a majority 
>>> >>> of the world‚EUR^(TM)s people, but living species generally. 
>>>Hence, 
>>> >>> nothing is /fairer/---more just, more beautiful, and more 
>>> >>> necessary---today than tn the struggle to overthrow the regime of 
>>> >>> capital and to create a system of substantive equality and 
>>> >>> sustainable human development; a socialism for the twenty-first 
>>>century.
>>> >>> ‚EURoeWell grubbed, old mole!‚EUR? 36 
>>> >>> 
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#en36>
>>> >>> Notes
>>> >>>
>>> >>>  1. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn1>James
>>> >>>     Hansen, /Storms of My Grandchildren /(New York: Bloomsbury, 
>>>2009).
>>> >>>  2. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn2>William
>>> >>>     H. McNeill, /The Global Condition/ (Princeton: Princeton
>>> >>>     University Press, 1992), 135--49, and ‚EURoe The Conservation 
>>>of
>>> >>>     Catastrophe
>>> >>>     
>>><httpp://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2001/dec/20/the-conservation-
>>>o
>>>f-catastrophe/>,‚EUR?
>>> >>>     /New York Review of Books/, December 20, 2001, 86--88.
>>> >>>  3. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn3>Karl
>>> >>>     Marx, /Capital/, vol. 1 (London: Penguin, 1976), 638.
>>> >>>  4. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn4>McNeill,
>>> >>>     /The Global Condition/, xiv.
>>> >>>  5. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn5>Karl
>>> >>>     Marx and Frederick Engels, /Collected Works, /vol. 25(New York:
>>> >>>     International Publishers, 1975), 460--64.
>>> >>>  6. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn6>It
>>> >>>     should be noted that some nineteenth-century concerns regarding
>>> >>>     local and regional climate change proved to be exaggerated in
>>> >>>     some respects and prescient in others. Although downplayed by a
>>> >>>     majority of scientists for the most of the twentieth century,
>>> >>>     the ability of human beings to alter climate on a regional 
>>>basis
>>> >>>     is no longer in serious doubt today. Thus the United Nations
>>> >>>     Convention to Combat Desertification has highlighted human-made
>>> >>>     desertification. For treatments of this problem see Daniel
>>> >>>     Hillel, /Out of the Earth /(Berkeley: University of California
>>> >>>     Press, 1991), 175--89; Brian Fagan, /Floods, Famines, and
>>> >>>     Emperors /(New York: BBasic Books, 1999), 217--18. On the
>>> >>>     science of climate change in Germmany in the late nineteenth
>>> >>>     century see Eduard Br√1é4chner, /The Sources and Consequences of
>>> >>>     Climate Change and Climate Variability in Historical Times
>>> >>>     /(Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).
>>> >>>  7. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn7>Clarence
>>> >>>     J. Glacken, ‚EURoeChanging Ideas of the Habitable World,‚EUR? 
>>>in
>>> >>>     William L. Thomas Jr., /Man‚EUR^(TM)s Role in Changing the Face
>>> >>>     of the Earth/, vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
>>> >>>     1956), 77--78. De Saussure was the first to develop the
>>> >>>     hypothesis of aa greenhouse effect in the regulation of the
>>> >>>     atmosphere---a thesis takken up by Joseph Fourier, and then
>>> >>>     verified experimentally by John Tyndall in 1859, who
>>> >>>     demonstrated that carbon dioxide and other gases ‚EURoechecks
>>> >>>     its [solar heat‚EUR^(TM)s] exit‚EUR? back into space. Karl 
>>>Marx,
>>> >>>     who was attending some of Tyndall‚EUR^(TM)s lectures at the
>>> >>>     Royal Institution at the time, and who was particularly
>>> >>>     interested in the latter‚EUR^(TM)s experiments on solar
>>> >>>     radiation, was quite likely in the audience on one of the
>>> >>>     occasions when these results were presented in 1859 and 1861.
>>> >>>     See Michael Hulme, ‚EURoeOn the Origin of ‚EUR~The Greenhouse
>>> >>>     Effect‚EUR^(TM): John Tyndall‚EUR^(TM)s 1859 Interrogation of
>>> >>>     Nature,‚EUR? /Weather /64, no. 5 (May 2009): 121--23; Daniel
>>> >>>     Yergin, /The Quest /(Neww York: Penguin, 2011), 425--28;
>>> >>>     Friedrich Lessner, ‚EURoeBefore 11848 and After,‚EUR? in
>>> >>>     Institute for Marxism-Leninism, ed., /Reminiscences of Marx and
>>> >>>     Engels /(Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, n. d.),
>>> >>>     161; Y.M. Uranovsky, ‚EURoeMarxism and Natural Science,‚EUR? in
>>> >>>     Nikolai Bukharin, et. al., /Marxism and Modern Thought /(New
>>> >>>     York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1935), 140.
>>> >>>  8. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn8>Glacken,
>>> >>>     ‚EURoeChanging Ideas,‚EUR? 78--79; Alexannder von Humboldt,
>>> >>>     /Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of
>>> >>>     America, During the Years 1799--1804/ (London: Henry G. Bohhn,
>>> >>>     1852), 9--10; J.B. Boussingault, /Rural Economy in its
>>> >>>     Relationns with Chemistry, Physics and Meteorology/ (New York:
>>> >>>     D. Appleton, 1845), 501--7.
>>> >>>  9. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn9>M.J.
>>> >>>     Schleiden, /The Plant: A Biography /(London: H. Baillere, 
>>>1853),
>>> >>>     295, 303--7.
>>> >>> 10. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn10>Fraas
>>> >>>     quoted by Frederick Engels, in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels,
>>> >>>     /Gesamtausgabe /(/MEGA/), IV, 31 (Amsterdam: Akadamie Verlag,
>>> >>>     1999), 512--15. Translation into English by Joseph Fracchia.
>>> >>>     DDrawing on Fraas, Marsh in the United States argued in his 
>>>/Man
>>> >>>     and Nature /(1864): ‚EURoeClearing and cultivation have 
>>>affected
>>> >>>     climate,‚EUR? while ‚EURoechange in climate‚EUR? in turn
>>> >>>     ‚EURoehas essentially modified the character of vegetable
>>> >>>     life.‚EUR? The significance of this was not to be doubted.
>>> >>>     ‚EURoeWith the disappearance of the forest,‚EUR? Marsh wrote,
>>> >>>     ‚EURoeall is changed.‚EUR? George Perkins Marsh, /Man and 
>>>Nature
>>> >>>     /(Seattle: University of Washington, 2003), 14, 186--87.
>>> >>> 11. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn11>Charles
>>> >>>     Lyell, /Principles of Geology/, vol. 2 (London: John Murray,
>>> >>>     1832), 200--205.
>>> >>> 12. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn12>Charles
>>> >>>     Darwin, /Journal of Researches into the Geology of the Various
>>> >>>     Countries Visited During the Voyage of the H.M.S Beagle /(New
>>> >>>     York: E.P. Dutton, 1906), 470--71; Charles Darwin, /Beagle
>>> >>>     Diarry /(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 428--29;
>>> >>>     Richardd Grove, /Green Imperialism /(Cambridge: Cambridge
>>> >>>     University Press, 1995), 42--44, 95--109, 121--25, 343--45.
>>> >>> 13. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn13>Karl
>>> >>>     Marx and Frederick Engels, /Collected Works, /vol. 42 (New 
>>>York:
>>> >>>     International Publishers, 1975), 558--59.
>>> >>> 14. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn14>Marx
>>> >>>     and Engels, /MEGA/, IV, 31 (Amsterdam: Akadamie Verlag, 1999),
>>> >>>     512--15. Translation by Joseph Fracchia.
>>> >>> 15. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn15>Marx,
>>> >>>     /Capital/, vol. 1, 381.
>>> >>> 16. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn16>Marx
>>> >>>     and Engels, /Collected Works/, vol. 25, 330‚EUR"31.
>>> >>> 17. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn17>Marx
>>> >>>     and Engels, /Collected Works/, vol. 42, 507; Marx, /Capital/,
>>> >>>     vol. 1, 636--39; Karl Marx, /Capital/, vol. 3 (London: Penguin,
>>> >>>     1981), 948--50.
>>> >>> 18. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn18>See
>>> >>>     John Bellamy Foster, ‚EURoeE. Ray Lankester: Ecological
>>> >>>     Materialist,‚EUR? /Organization and Environment/ 13, no. 2 
>>>(June
>>> >>>     2000): 233--35.
>>> >>> 19. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn19>E.
>>> >>>     Ray Lankester, /Science From an Easy Chair /(Freeport, New 
>>>York:
>>> >>>     Books for Libraries Press, 1913), 365--72. Like Engels,,
>>> >>>     Lankester followed Darwin in pointing to St. Helena as an
>>> >>>     example of ecological destruction. Ibid., 369; Marx and Engels,
>>> >>>     /Collected Works/, vol. 25, 459.
>>> >>> 20. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn20>Arthur
>>> >>>     G. Tansley, ‚EURoeThe Use and Abuse of Vegetational Concepts 
>>>and
>>> >>>     Terms,‚EUR? /Ecology /16, no. 3 (1935): 284‚EUR"307. See also
>>> >>>     John Bellamy Foster, Brett Clark, and Richard York, /The
>>> >>>     Ecological Rift /(New York: Monthly Review Press, 2010), 
>>>324--322.
>>> >>> 21. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn21>J.B.S.
>>> >>>     Haldane, ‚EURoeBack to Nature,‚EUR? April 18, 1938, Haldane
>>> >>>     Papers, University of London, Box 7.
>>> >>> 22. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn22>Wilhelm
>>> >>>     Wundt, /Ethics, /vol. 3(New York: Macmillan, 1907), 66, 84--88,
>>> >>>     101--3; Kurt Danziger, ‚EURoeThe Ue Unknown Wundt,‚EUR? in
>>> >>>     Robert W. Rieber and David K. Robinson, /Wilhelm Wundt in
>>> >>>     History /(New York: Plenum, 2001), 108--9; A.A. Goldennweiser,
>>> >>>     ‚EURoeWilliam Wundt,‚EUR? /The Freeman/ (July 6, 1921): 
>>>397--98.
>>> >>> 23. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn23>See
>>> >>>     Michael Polanyi, /The Logic of Liberty /(Chicago: University of
>>> >>>     Chicago Press, 1951), 154--65; F.A. Hayek, /Law, Legiislation
>>> >>>     and Society /(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973),
>>> >>>     35‚EUR"59; Duncan Forbes, ‚EURoeScientific Whiggism,‚EUR?
>>> >>>     /Cambridge Journal /7 (August 1954): 643--70;Louis Schneider,
>>> >>>     /Paaradox and Society /(New Brunswick: New Jersey: Transaction
>>> >>>     Books, 1987), 169--73.
>>> >>> 24. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn24>G.W.F.
>>> >>>     Hegel, /The Philosophy of History /(New York: Dover, 1956), 33.
>>> >>>     Wundt, however, complained that Hegel‚EUR^(TM)s approach in 
>>>this
>>> >>>     respect was as one-sided (and teleological) as the 
>>>individualism
>>> >>>     of the Smithian variety. Wundt, /Ethics/, vol. 3, 34--35.
>>> >>> 25. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn25>Marx
>>> >>>     and Engels, /Collected Works/, vol. 25, 462.
>>> >>> 26. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn26>Karl
>>> >>>     Marx, /Capital/, vol. 2 (London: Penguin, 1978), 322.
>>> >>> 27. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn27>Naomi
>>> >>>     Klein, /The Shock Doctrine/: /The Rise of Disaster Capitalism/
>>> >>>     (New York: Henry Holt, 2007).
>>> >>> 28. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn28>On
>>> >>>     the general issue of the ‚EURoeacceleration of history‚EUR? in
>>> >>>     relation to the environmental problem see John Bellamy Foster,
>>> >>>     /The Vulnerable Planet /(New York: Monthly Press, 1999),
>>> >>>     143--"49. At issue here is not only the acceleration of the
>>> >>>     potential for environmental catastrophe, but also the needed
>>> >>>     accelerated response: ecological revolution itself.
>>> >>> 29. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn29>Deeper
>>> >>>     analyses of the IPAT approach, reflecting a genuine radical
>>> >>>     critique of the system, have shown that the treadmill of
>>> >>>     capitalist economic growth is the primary problem. See Richard
>>> >>>     York, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz, ‚EURoeFootprints on the
>>> >>>     Earth,‚EUR? /American Sociological Review /68, no. 2 (2003):
>>> >>>     279--300; Allan Schnaiberg, </The Environment /(New York:
>>> >>>     Oxford, 1980).
>>> >>> 30. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn30>Al
>>> >>>     Gore, /Our Choice /(New York: Rodale, 2009), 346; Paul Hawken,
>>> >>>     Amory Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins, /Natural Capitalism
>>> >>>     /(Boston: Little Brown, 1999); L. Hunter Lovins and Boyd Cohen,
>>> >>>     /Climate Capitalism /(New York: Hill and Wang, 2011); Jonathon
>>> >>>     Porritt, /Capitalism: As If the World Mattered /(London:
>>> >>>     Earthscan, 2007).
>>> >>> 31. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn31>Herman
>>> >>>     Daly, /Steady-State Economics /(Washington, D.C.: Island Press,
>>> >>>     1991), 6, 149--51. Also Fred Magdoff and John Bellammy Foster,
>>> >>>     /What Every Environmentalist Needs to Know About Capitalism
>>> >>>     /(New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 7--8.
>>> >>> 32. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn32>K.
>>> >>>     William Kapp, /The Social Costs of Private Enterprise /(New
>>> >>>     York: Schocken Books 1971), 231.
>>> >>> 33. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn33>As
>>> >>>     Marx and Engels noted, capitalist society had ‚EURoeconjured up
>>> >>>     such gigantic means of production and exchange...[that] likke
>>> >>>     the sorcerer, who is no longer able to control the powers of 
>>>the
>>> >>>     nether world whom he has called up by his spells‚EUR? it is
>>> >>>     faced with one crisis after another. Karl Marx and Frederick
>>> >>>     Engels, /The Communist Manifesto /(New York: Monthly Review
>>> >>>     Press, 1964), 11.
>>> >>> 34. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn34>Hansen,
>>> >>>     /Storms of My Grandchildren/, xv--xvi, 2252--55; John Carey,
>>> >>>     ‚EURoe Storm Warnings: Extreme Weather is a Product of Climate
>>> >>>     Change
>>> >>>     
>>><http://www.scientificamericaan.com/article.cfm?id=extreme-weather-cause
>>>d
>>>-by-climate-change>,‚EUR?
>>> >>>     ScientificAmerican.com, June 28, 2011; Heidi Cullen, /The
>>> >>>     Weather of the Future /(New York: Harper, 2010).
>>> >>> 35. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn35>John
>>> >>>     Maynard Keynes, /Essays in Persuasion /(New York: Harcourt,
>>> >>>     Brace and Co., 1932), 358--73.
>>> >>> 36. ‚+©
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#fn36>Karl
>>> >>>     Marx, /The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte /(New York:
>>> >>>     International Publishers, 1991), 121. For Marx, the mole 
>>>digging
>>> >>>     so industrially away beneath the earth represented the unseen,
>>> >>>     changing historical conditions, which would give rise to a
>>> >>>     period of radical social change.
>>> >>> 37. Print <??>
>>> >>> 38. ^ Return to top
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe#top>Comments
>>> >>>     are closed, but trackbacks
>>> >>>     
>>><http://monthlyreview.org/2011/12/01/capitalism-and-the-accumulation-of-
>>>c
>>>atastrophe/trackback>and
>>> >>>     pingbacks are open.
>>> >>>
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >>
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> > http://www.MitchelCohen.com
>>> >
>>> >
>>> > <http://www.mitchelcohen.com/>Ring the bells that still can ring,  
>>> > Forget your perfect offering.
>>> > There is a crack, a crack in everything, That's how the light gets 
>>>in.
>>> > ~ Leonard Cohen
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>> >
>>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>------------------------------------
>>
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