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COMMUNET  June 1993, Week 2

COMMUNET June 1993, Week 2

Subject:

One Person's Rough Sketch of Net History (fwd)

From:

Pres Smith <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Wed, 9 Jun 1993 21:06:35 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (256 lines)

      [Those looking for NREN background reading and references might be
       interested in this.--ps]
 
   ------------------forwarded message--------------
 
Subj:   RE: internet past present future (fwd)
 
Date: 29 May 1993 00:21:15 -0400 (EDT)
From: [log in to unmask] (Ronda Hauben)
Subject: RE: internet past present future (fwd)
To: [log in to unmask]
 
>
> >
> > Greetings networkers.
> >
> > Please disregard the previous garbled message if you got it.
> >
> > My name is Shan Nelson-Rowe and I am writing an article on the internet
> > for Open Systems TOday, a trade paper for Unix and interoperable computing.
> > The focus of the article is on business use of the internet, but I am
> > also interested in any real or perceived conflicts between business,
> > educational and research uses of the net.
> > Please feel free to respond on or off list to any of the following questions.
> > Off list responses can be sent to
> >
> > [log in to unmask]
> >
> > Please indicate your name, position, organization, and daytime phone number.
> >
> Ronda Hauben
> Editor
> Amateur Computerist Newsletter
> (a noncommercial publication that is based on volunteer labor)
> 313-278-0246
>
> >
> > 1.  What is packet switching and is its significance for  the internet?
> >
> There is an article in the just published issue of the Amateur Computerist
> "The Social Forces Behind the Development of Usenet News" in vol 5 no 1-2
> that describes the importance of packet switching and its role inthe
> development of the Arpanet which was the basis for the NSFnet.
> The author of the article, Michael Hauben, writes:
> Packet-switching was developed for use as the protocol of exchanging
> information over the lines. Packet-switching is a communications
> process in which all messages are broken up into equal size packets
> which are transmitted interspersed and then re-assembled. In this
> way, short, medium and long messages get transferred with minimum
> delay. (on pg. 14 of Amateur Computerist issue. See also
> Leonard Kleinrock, "On Communications and Networks",
> IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol C-25, No. 12, Dec., 1976, pg. 1327.)
>
> Later in his article, Michael Hauben writes, "The development
> of packet-switching revolutionized the basic methodology of
> connecting computers." (pg. 15)
>
> The significance of all this for the internet is that all the systems
> that adopted packet switching could then be interconnected.
>
> > 2. Who establishes the technology for the internet, and how do they do so?
>
> The success of the Arpanet research testbed is what established the
> technology for the internet. If one wants to join the internet, they
> have to follow the agreed upon protocols and procedures as established
> in the relevant RFC's.
>
> It's not that the internet appears somewhere out of nowhere. It has
> developed thru the 25 year research on the Arpanet. Vol 5 no 1-2
> of the Amateur Computerist has 2 articles that describe a bit of the
> history of the arpanet and of usenet news.
> Also, I am working on another article that describes a bit of where
> all these development came from.
>
> >
> > 3. Who sets policy for acceptable use of the interent, and how do they do so?
> >
> There have always been clauses in grants that have acceptable uses for
> money since the Arpanet and then the NSFNet which replaced the Arpanet
> have been built with public moneys that were required not to be serving
> commercial uses, but were to be serving public purposes. The current
> AUP grows out of the obligations of the NSF to fund scientific and
> research purposes and not commercial or self serving profit making purposes.
>
> Also, there have been millions of dollars of Michigan public funds
> that have gone into building the NSFNet and there are obligaitons
> that these funds serve a public purpose.
>
> These funds were used to get the NSFNet contract for Merit and IBM
> and MCI and thus the State of Michigan is involved and
> these parties have been operating under color of state law and thus
> these activities should be serving public purposes.
>
> > 4. What uses, other than email, do you currently have for the internet in your
> > industry or profession?
> >
> I have not been using this for any commercial purposes but for
> research and scientific purposes. It seems important that such
> purposes be recognized as being the needed purposes with regard
> to continuing to develop the internet and usenet, etc.
>
> I have been doing research on the history and development and economic
> foundation of these important new developments. I have begun to learn
> a bit about using unix to help with the work. Also, I have found ftp
> and telnet and usenet capabilities very important for the research
> work I am doing. In addition the newly developing freenets have been
> helpful.
>
> > 5. What uses, other than email, do you foreseefor the internet in your industry
> > or profession?  What technological or policy changes will be necessary to
> > make such uses a reality?
> >
> If the network is not frozen by the current commercialization and
> privatization attack, then there are very important social and public
> purposes that can and will be fulfilled by it.
>
> There are some articles in vol 4 no 5 of the Amateur Computerist
> on "The Wonderful World of Usenet News" which show the significant
> public advantages that can come from the Internet and Usenet if
> if is available free to the great majority of the people in the U.S.
> See for example the article "The Computer as Democratizer" or
> "CityNet in New Zealand" or "Arte, Computers and Usenet News" or
> "Liberation Technology" or "The Net Works" from this issue of
> the Amateur Computerist which describe some of important uses
> that these developments promise.
>
> > 6. Does the internet now constitute a National Information Infrastructure,
> > or Data Superhighway?If not, what changes will be necessary to bring about the
>
> No it doesn't constitute any data superhighway or national
> information infrastructure because it is not available free
> to the population in the U.S. as Minitel is in France.
>
> There was an article by J.C.R. Licklider and Albert Vezza,
> "Applications of Information Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE,
> Number 11, November, 1978, which describes the need for any
> viable network in the U.S. to be available freely or at very low
> cost to everyone in the U.S. and that that is a difficult task to
> achieve.
>
> The changes necessary to bring this about would be to stop the
> commercialization, privatization coup that is ongoing with
> regard to the internet and challenge the changes midcontract
> with Merit and the NSFNet that allowed them to have a radical
> change in the nature of the network with no public discussion
> (instead a secret meeting at Harvard where the changes were planned.)
>
> In the Special Supplement of the Amateur Computerist on
> "The Wonderful World of Usenet News", in the article "Two
> Books to Help New Users", the article objects to the
> claim that `privatization is a good idea.' It explains,
> "The terms `commercialization' and `privatization' as
> applied to the Internet are relatively recent and were coined
> two years ago at a workshop in 1990 at Harvard University,
> according to Eric M. Aupperle, (See "Internet and NSFNet Evolution,"
> vol 1, no. 3, pg. 3) Previous to that proposed change in direction,
> the research and educational mandate of the National Science
> Foundation's Acceptable Use Policy restricted commercial and private
> interests using the net to research and educational purposes. At
> the same time, academic and educational institutions were encouraged
> to utilize the network. The goal was set of broadening public use
> and accessibility of the Internet by making it available to all
> school children in the U.S. but this has not yet been achieved.
> Nor has any serious legislation or plan been put forward to
> implement this goal. The current promotion of private and commercial
> purposes or ownership of the Internet or parts or it is in conflict
> with this goal of increased public accessibility. It also
> threatens to impede the continued development of this technological
> breakthru."
>
>   The articles continues, and explains, "The issue of how best
> to support the continued development and evolution of networking
> technology and connectivity is a serious question that needs to
> be broadly discussed and debated. The Internet and its prototypes
> like the ARPANET have been developed by U.S. government agencies
> via a large expenditure of public funds and resoiurces....."
>    "The history of the evolution of the ARPANET and then the
> Internet", the article continues, "shows that these technological
> breakthroughs were only possible because commercial traffic
> and participation were actively restricted and private profit making
> interests were not permitted to impede technological development.
> The future direction of the Internet is a serious concern that
> needs to be examined in the light of its historical evolution...."
>
>
>
> > NII.  How soon are these changes likely to be implemented?
> >
> Well, the current commercialization of the NSFNet backbone
> has already been implemented, but it is a real impediment
> to any further development of a nii in the U.S.
>
> > 7. How will the National Science Foundation's plan to replace the internet
> >  backbone with a distributed network affect access to and use of the internet?
>
> It will make it very expensive and thus will stop the ability of
> scientific and research work to continue the development.
> Stephen Wolfe talks about charging for email - that will help kill
> the ability to spread email.
>
> >
> > 8. Does this plan amount to the privatization of the internet?   If so is
> > this a good thing?
>
> What is going on is in fact the stealing of a great deal of public
> funds and research and scientific work and putting it in the hands
> of a few private companies who are being encouraged to limit the
> scientific uses so they can mazimize their profit.
>
> It is not a good thing and is based on serious illegal activities.
>
> There has been NO public discussion of what has been created
> and what is the history of it and the way forward. Instead a secret
> workshop at Harvard in 1990 planned to change the course of
> what has been very important and stupendous development.
> Shortly after that workshop (with no public discussion or questions
> allowed) commercial and privatizing activities were begun midcontract
> between Merit and the NSF.
>
> This is probably the biggest theft in recent times -- and it has
> been greeted with total silence in the national media.
>
> The Office of Inspector General recently issued report on the NSFNet
> in April 1993 where he outlines some of the travesty of what has
> gone on with the fundamental changes in the whole nature of the
> NSFNet midcontract between the NSF and Merit with no public record
> or discussion, etc. but his report just passes over these violations
> and in fact tries to create subterfuges to cover up the illegal
> subcontracting that went on.
>
> But the problem is that the need to have a national network available
> to everyone in their homes cannot be achieved via such disdain
> for public procedures and purposes and thus the forward evolution
> of the Internet and the development of computer technology that it
> makes possible, is being sacrificed for very short term private
> gain of a few individuals.
>
> Also, there is a talk that I presented about the important role of
> Usenet in this called "The Evolution of Usenet News: The Poor Man's
> Arpanet" which is available.
>
> Ronda
>
> >
> >
> >
>
>
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Prescott Smith   -  Univ. of Mass/Amherst   -  [log in to unmask]
     Ednet - a forum exploring the educational potential of the Internet
   e-mail to:  [log in to unmask]   1st line:  Sub Ednet (Your Name)
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