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COMMUNET  September 1993, Week 3

COMMUNET September 1993, Week 3

Subject:

Re: online community files

From:

Cliff Figallo <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Mon, 20 Sep 1993 19:16:11 PDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (1018 lines)

                         The WELL:
 
  Small Town on the Internet Highway System
 
                       by Cliff Figallo
 
                      [log in to unmask]
 
                       September, 1993
 
 
 
[This document was adapted from a paper presented to the "Public
 
Access to the Internet" meeting sponsored by the John F. Kennedy
 
School of Government at Harvard University in May, 1993.
 
You may distribute and quote from this piece as you wish, but
 
please include the request that my name and contact information be
 
included with any quotations or distribution.
 
Thank you. -- C.F.]
 
 
 
Introduction
 
 
 
   The Internet serves as a routing matrix for electronic mail
 
messages, file transfers and information searches.  Internet
 
sites, those machines and sub-networks that are "internetworked",
 
have thus far served mostly as file archives, email
 
addresses and administrative caretakers for their locally
 
serviced users.  Historically, these sites have been universities,
 
corporations or military and government installations.  With
 
the popularization and commercialization of the Internet, new
 
models of Internet sites are connecting to the web of high
 
speed data lines.
 
 
 
   One unique Internet site, accessible by anyone with an Internet
 
account, is The Whole Earth Lectronic Link (hereafter referred to
 
by its popular name, The WELL).  In the future, the Internet will
 
certainly feature many small, homegrown, regional commercial
 
systems like The WELL.  Such systems will pay for their own
 
operations and for their Internet connections through user fees,
 
handling all of the billing and administrative tasks relating to their
 
users, developing their own local community standards of behavior
 
and interaction.  Their users will often leave the "home" system,
 
going out through Internet gateways to other regional systems or
 
searching for information in the myriad databases of the Net.  Internet voyagers will drop in to visit the unique communities they find
 
outside their home systems, sampling the local cultural flavors and
 
meeting and conversing with the individuals who inhabit those systems.
 
 
 
   The main attractions of these local Internet "towns" will prove to be
 
their characteristic online conversations and social conventions and
 
their focus on specialized fields of knowledge or problem solving.
 
The WELL is a seminal example of what these small pioneering
 
towns on the Internet highway system will be like.
 
 
 
   The WELL is a computer-mediated public conferencing and
 
email system linked to the Internet through BARRNet, the
 
regional Internet vendor.  The WELL's  headquarters are
 
located in Sausalito, California.  It is co-owned by Point
 
Foundation (producers of Whole Earth Review and the Whole
 
Earth Catalogs) and Rosewood Stone, a financial investment
 
company owned the founder and ex-owner of Rockport Shoes.
 
 
 
   The WELL was, from its founding in 1985 until January of
 
1992, accessible to its users only via direct or packet switched
 
dialup.  It had carried stored-and-forwarded USENET news
 
groups since soon after startup.  These files were imported via
 
regular phone links with Internet-connected sites.  Among its
 
users were some small minority of students, academics and
 
technical professionals with Internet accounts on other
 
systems.  The feasibility of the WELL connecting to the Internet
 
increased steadily through the 1980s until financial, technical
 
and political conditions allowed it to happen.  It is significant,
 
though, that the character of the WELL developed under
 
conditions of relative network isolation.  Indeed, part of the
 
justification given by BARRNet, the regional Internet service
 
provider, for allowing a commercial system like the WELL to
 
connect through their facilities was the unique character of the
 
WELL as an established system with thriving and interesting
 
discussion, and its perceived value as a an information-
 
generating resource for the Net.  The WELL would, they
 
figured, make an interesting and potentially rewarding
 
stopover on any user's Internet Tour.
 
 
 
   The WELL is often associated with the term "online
 
community".  The idea that community can develop through
 
online interaction is not unique to the WELL.  But the WELL,
 
because of its organizational and technical history, has survived
 
primarily through the online personal interaction of its
 
subscribers and staff rather than through successful business
 
strategy developed by its owners and managers.  The
 
discussion and dialog contained and archived on the WELL are
 
its primary products.  The WELL "sells its users to each other"
 
and it considers its users to be both its consumers and its
 
primary producers.  Databases of imported information and
 
libraries full of downloadable software are scarcely present.
 
Third-party services such as stock-trading news, wire services,
 
airline reservation access and software vendor support have
 
never been offered to any significant extent.
 
 
 
   The WELL today counts around 7,000 paying subscribers.  It
 
has a growing staff of over 12 and a gross annual income
 
approaching $2 million.  It is a small but healthy business and
 
has historically spent very little on advertising and promotion.
 
It gets far more than its share of free publicity and notoriety
 
through the Press coverage as compared to much larger
 
commercial systems.  This is so in spite of what most people
 
would consider a "user-hostile" interface and relatively high
 
pricing.
 
 
 
   The WELL had a rather unique upbringing.  I will describe its
 
early growth and the foundations of its character in the rest of
 
this paper.  I do this from the point of view of having been the
 
person in charge for six years, though I took great pains to de-
 
emphasize the "in charge" part whenever possible.  I tried to
 
focus more on maintenance and the distribution of responsibility
 
through the user community rather than on control.   Though my
 
record for making the WELL a technical showpiece is certainly
 
not without blemish, but my main emphasis was in preserving
 
and supporting the exercise of freedom and creativity by the
 
WELL's users through providing an open forum for their interaction..
 
 
 
   It is my assertion that the actual exercise of free speech and
 
assembly in online interaction is among the most significant
 
and important uses of electronic networking; and that the value
 
of this practice to the nation and to the world may prove
 
critical at this stage in human history.  I regard the WELL as a
 
sample of the kind of small, diverse, grassroots service
 
provider that can and should exist in profusion, mutually accessible
 
through the open channels on the Internet.
 
 
 
   The possibility that the future "Internet" (or whatever replaces
 
it) may be dominated by monolithic corporate-controlled
 
electronic consumer shopping malls and amusement parks is
 
antithetical to the existence and activity of free individuals in
 
the electronic communications world, each one able to interact
 
freely with other individuals and groups there.
 
 
 
A Very Brief Biography of the WELL
 
 
 
   Founded in 1985 by Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant as a
 
partnership of Point and NETI , the WELL came online in
 
February of 1985 and began taking paying customers April 1,
 
1985.  It's initial staff of one full-time and one part-time
 
employee grew to 12 paid employees and well over one
 
hundred online volunteers by 1992.   As of this date, The WELL
 
runs on a Sequent multi- processor mini-computer located in a
 
cramped room in a small office building next to the houseboat
 
docks in Sausalito, California.  The WELL has full Internet
 
connectivity which is currently offered for the use of its
 
subscribers at no surcharge.  Most users call in to the WELL
 
over regular phone lines and modems., and most long distance
 
customers reach the WELL using an X.25 commercial packet
 
network for an additional $4.00 per hour.  An increasing
 
number of users are logging in to the WELL via the Internet,
 
many using Internet accounts on commercial gatewayed
 
systems rather than the packet switching nets.
 
 
 
   The WELL's notable achievements are many, not the least of
 
which is that it has survived for eight years while so many
 
other startup systems, though much better-funded, have failed.
 
The Electronic Frontier Foundation was born largely out of the
 
free speech ferment that exists on the WELL and out of
 
discussions and debate that go on there concerning the unique
 
legal and regulatory paradoxes that confront users, managers
 
and owners of systems in this new communications medium.
 
These discussion also attract a population of journalists who
 
find cutting edge ideas and concepts arising constantly in the
 
WELL's forums.  Many other formal and informal organizations
 
and collaborations that are effecting the world today call the
 
WELL home.
 
 
 
The WELL Story -- a Less Brief Biography
 
 
 
Birth
 
   The WELL was the conceptual and partnered creation of Larry
 
Brilliant and Stewart Brand.  They agreed to have their
 
respective organizations cooperate in establishing and
 
operating a computer conferencing network that could serve as
 
a prototype for many regional (as opposed to national)
 
commercial systems.   "Let a thousand CompuServe's bloom," is
 
how Brilliant put it.
 
 
 
   Initial funding came from Brilliant's company, Networking
 
Technologies International (NETI) in the form of a leased VAX
 
11/750 computer and hard disks, UNIX system software, a
 
"conferencing" program called Picospan, and a loan of $90,000.
 
Point Foundation, the non-profit parent corporation of Whole
 
Earth Review,  contributed the name recognition of "Whole
 
Earth", the personal attraction of having Stewart Brand to
 
converse with online and the modest but important
 
promotional value of constant mention in the small circulation
 
but influential "Whole Earth Review" magazine.
 
 
 
   Business goals for The WELL were, from its inception,
 
purposefully flexible.  But the idea that interesting discussion
 
would attract interesting discussants was at the core of the
 
theory that drove the WELL's growth.  Initially, many free
 
accounts were offered to people who had, at one time or
 
another, been associated with Whole Earth publications and
 
events, or who were known by Whole Earth staff to be likely
 
productive and attractive participants (referred to, tongue-in-
 
cheek, as "shills").  In April of 1985, the WELL began offering
 
subscriptions at $8 per month plus $3 per hour.
 
 
 
Initial Design and Rule making
 
   The WELL presented its first users with the sole disclaimer:
 
"You own your own words."  The owners of the WELL sought to
 
distance themselves from liability for any text or data posted
 
or stored online by WELL users while, at the same time,
 
providing a free space for creative, experimental and
 
unfettered communication.  An alternative interpretation of the
 
original disclaimer (now referred to as YOYOW) held that rather
 
than only laying responsibility for WELL postings at the feet of
 
the author, the phrase also imparted copyrighted ownership of
 
postings to the author under the implied protection and
 
enforcement of the WELL.  Management and ownership
 
resisted the onus of their serving as legal agent for the WELL's
 
users, recognizing the potential expense and futility of pursuing
 
people for electronically copying and using customers' words.
 
Thus, the evolving interpretation of YOYOW provided fuel for
 
years' worth of discussion on the topics of copyright,
 
intellectual property and manners in electronic space.
 
 
 
   A general aversion to the making and enforcement of rigid
 
rules has continued at the WELL although incendiary incidents
 
and distressing situations have occasionally brought calls for
 
"more Law and Order" or absolute limits to speech.  WELL
 
management rejected these calls, resisting being put in the role
 
of policeman and judge except where absolutely necessary, and
 
espousing the view that the medium of online interpersonal
 
communication was (and still is) too immature, too formative to
 
be confined by the encumbrances of strict rules and
 
restrictive software.  The imposition by management of
 
arbitrary limitations on language and speech, aimed at
 
protecting the feelings or sensibilities of small groups of people
 
could not possibly protect all people's feelings and sensibilities.
 
Besides, by stifling free and open dialog, we might have lost
 
our chance to discover what kinds of interaction really worked
 
in this medium.  Interaction in public access systems seemed to
 
be much more productive, innovative, educational and
 
entertaining where there were fewer prohibitions imposed by
 
system management.  If limitations were to be imposed and
 
enforced, they could be handled best from within the user
 
population on a "local", not system wide basis.  The creation of
 
private interactive areas where such local rules held sway
 
allowed public forums to retain their openness while providing
 
more regulated "retreats" for those who felt they needed them.
 
 
 
Staff-Customer Collaboration
 
   Immediately after opening the system to public access, the
 
small WELL staff and the original participants began the
 
collaborative process of designing of a more friendly interface
 
from the raw Picospan software.  Picospan included a toolbox of
 
customization utilities that could be used to make changes on a
 
system-wide or at-user's-option basis.  Picospan was tightly-
 
integrated with the UNIX operating system and could therefore
 
provide transparent access to programs written to operate in
 
the UNIX environment.  The libertarian, anti-authoritarian
 
philosophy of Picospan's author, Marcus Watts, showed through
 
in its design which prevented un-acknowledged censorship by
 
system administrators, forum moderators (hosts) or authors
 
themselves.  Picospan also allowed topics (discussion threads)
 
to be "linked" into several forums at once...a feature that aids
 
the cross-pollination of ideas and groups through the system.
 
The influence that Picospan has had on the WELL's
 
development as a community and hotbed of discussion cannot
 
be underestimated.  Its display of topics as continuously-
 
scrolling dialog documents (rather than as fragmented
 
collections of individually-displayed responses) had a
 
tremendous effect on user involvement in ongoing discourse.
 
 
 
Staff Background
 
   The background of four of The WELL's non-technical senior
 
managers--people who worked there during its first seven
 
years--must be considered very significant to the formation of
 
the WELL's open and independent culture.
 
 
 
   The first director of the WELL, Matthew McClure and myself,
 
his successor, both spent the decade of the 1970's living in an
 
intentional community of some renown called The Farm as did
 
the WELL's first customer service manager, John Coate, and his
 
successor, Nancy Rhine..  Undoubtedly, this experience of living
 
cooperatively in multi-family situations in a community that
 
reached a peak population of over 1500 adults and children,
 
had a profound influence on the style of management of The
 
WELL.  Principles of tolerance and inclusion, fair resource
 
allocation, distributed responsibility, management by example
 
and influence, a flat organizational hierarchy, cooperative
 
policy formulation and acceptance of a libertarian-bordering-
 
on-anarchic ethos were all carryovers from our communal
 
living experience.  John Coate is known for having been integral
 
to the setting of a tone of the WELL where users and staff
 
intermingled both online and at the WELL's monthly office
 
parties.  He has authored a widely-distributed essay on
 
"Cyberspace Innkeeping" based on lessons learned in dealing
 
with customers in his time at the WELL..
 
 
 
Maintaining a History
 
   An important component to the establishment of community in
 
any setting or medium is a historical record of its environs, its
 
people, and their works and the relationships and organizations
 
that defined the direction of the collective entity.  For a variety
 
of reasons besides the security of backups,  the WELL still has a
 
significant portion of its online interaction saved on archived
 
tape, on its user-accessible disks and in the possession of many
 
of its conference hosts who have made a practice of backing up
 
topics on their home machines before retiring them from the
 
WELL.  WELL users were always vocal in their insistence that a
 
history be kept and went so far as to create an Archives
 
conference where topics judged of historical significance from
 
other areas of the WELL were linked and eventually "frozen"
 
for future reference.  These valuable conversational threads,
 
this "history" of the WELL, contributes to its depth and feeling
 
of place and community.  New users and veterans alike can
 
refer to these archives for background to current discussion
 
and to sample the flavor of the WELL from its early days.
 
When new users, experiencing the same revelations that
 
stirred WELL veterans years ago, bring up their own
 
interpretations of "you own your words", they are referred to
 
the several preserved topics in Archives where lengthy online
 
deliberations on the subject have been preserved..
 
 
 
Connections
 
   Originally, only direct dial modems could be used to reach the
 
WELL, but by the end of its first year of operation, an X.25
 
packet system was in place allowing long distance users to
 
reach the WELL at reasonable cost.  The WELL kept its San
 
Francisco focus because local callers had cheaper access and
 
could stay online longer for the same cost, but national and
 
international participants were now more encouraged to join in.
 
 
 
   Also, in 1986, Pacific Bell conducted a test of a regional packet-
 
switched network for which the WELL was enrolled as a "beta"
 
site.  For most of a year, users from most of the San Francisco
 
Bay Area were able to dial in to the WELL without phone toll
 
charges.  This fortuitous circumstance helped boost the WELL's
 
subscription base and connected many valuable customers
 
from the Silicon Valley area into the growing user pool.
 
 
 
   Over time, the percentage of users from outside of the Bay
 
Area climbed slowly but steadily.  As word spread through
 
frequent unsolicited articles in the press, the WELL became
 
known as a locus for cutting edge discussion of technical,
 
literary and community issues, and it became even more
 
attractive to long distance telecommunicators.
 
 
 
   On January 2, 1992, the WELL opened its connection to the
 
Internet through the regional provider, BARRNet.  After much
 
debugging and adjustment and a complete CPU upgrade, full
 
Internet service access was offered to WELL customers in June
 
of 1992.  Staff and users opened an Internet conference on the
 
WELL where discussions and Q&A take place and where new
 
features, discoveries and tools are shared.  The Internet
 
conference serves as a "living manual" to the resources, use and
 
news of the Net.
 
 
 
Community
 
   In a medium where text is the only means of communication,
 
trust becomes one of the most difficult but essential things to
 
build and maintain.  With no audible or visual clues to go by,
 
the bandwidth for interpersonal communication is quite thin.
 
There are, though, ways in which trust can be built even
 
through the small aperture of telecommunicated text.
 
 
 
   To eliminate one of the major barriers to establishment of
 
this trust on the system, it is necessary that the owners and
 
operators to be non-threatening.  One of the most menacing
 
conditions experienced by new users of public conferencing
 
systems is that of hierarchical uncertainty.  Who holds the
 
Power?  What is their agenda?  What are The Rules?  Who is
 
watching me and what I do?  Do I have any privacy?  How
 
might a "Big Brother" abuse me and my rights?  In the WELL's
 
case, it began with the asset of Whole Earth's decade of candid
 
exposure of its financial operations and its historically-blurred
 
boundaries between publisher, readers and writers.  Whole
 
Earth was not a devious entity.  We strove to match that
 
openness on the staff.
 
 
 
   We realized that we were in a position of ultimate power
 
as operators of the system; able to create and destroy user
 
accounts, data, communications at will.  It was incumbent on
 
us, then, to make clear to all users our assumptions and the
 
ground rules of the WELL in order to minimize any concerns
 
they might have about our intentions.  Our aim was to be as
 
much out front with users as possible.  Indeed, the John Coate
 
and I took the initiative, posting long autobiographical stories
 
from our communal past, inviting users to join us in problem-
 
solving discussions about the system and the business around
 
it, confessing to areas of ignorance and lack of experience in the
 
technical end of the business, and actively promoting the users
 
themselves as the most important creators of the WELL's
 
product.
 
 
 
   Staff members were encouraged to be visible online and to be
 
active listeners to user concerns in their respective areas of
 
responsibility.  Staff took part in discussions not only about
 
technical matters and customer service, but about
 
interpersonal online ethics.  When the inevitable online
 
quarrels surfaced, staff participated alongside users in
 
attempts to resolve them.  Over time, both staff and users
 
learned valuable lessons and a "core group" of users began to
 
coalesce around the idea that some kind of community was
 
forming and that it could survive these periodic emotional
 
firestorms.  The ethical construct that one could say whatever
 
one wanted to on the WELL, but that things worked best if it
 
was said with consideration of others in mind, became
 
ingrained in enough peoples' experience that community
 
understandings developed.  These "standards" were not written
 
down as rules, but are noted conspicuously in the WELL's User
 
Manual and are mentioned online as observations of how
 
things really seem to work.  Productive communication in this
 
medium can take place if it is done with care.
 
 
 
   Beginning in 1986, the WELL began sponsoring monthly face-
 
to-face gatherings open to all, WELL user or not.  Initially,
 
these Friday night parties were held in the WELL's small
 
offices, but as attendance grew and the offices became even
 
more cramped, the potluck gatherings, still called WELL Office
 
Parties (or WOPs) moved to other locations, eventually finding
 
a regular home at the Presidio Yacht Club near the foot of the
 
North end of the Golden Gate Bridge.  These in-person
 
encounters have been an integral and important part of the
 
WELL's community-building.  They are energetic, intense,
 
conversation-saturated events where people who communicate
 
through screen and keyboard day after day get to refresh
 
themselves with the wider bandwidth of physical presence.
 
Often, the face to face encounter has served to resolve
 
situations where the textual communications have broken
 
down between people.
 
 
 
Collaboration Part II
 
   The WELL was a bootstrap operation from its initial investment
 
in 1985.  As a business venture, it was undercapitalized and
 
struggled constantly to stay ahead of its growth in terms of its
 
technical infrastructure and staffing.  At the same time, it stuck
 
the ideal of charging its users low fees for service.  The
 
undercapitalization of the WELL and the low user charges
 
combined to force management into a constant state of creative
 
frugality.  From the first days of operation, the expertise and
 
advice of users was enlisted to help maintain the UNIX
 
operating system, to write documentation for the conferencing
 
software, to make improvements in the interface and to deal
 
with the larger problems such as hardware malfunctions and
 
upgrades.
 
 
 
   Over the years, many tools have been invented, programmed
 
and installed at the suggestion of or through the actual labor of
 
WELL users.  In an ongoing attempt to custom design the
 
interface so as to offer a comfortable environment for any user,
 
the WELL has become, if not a truly user-friendly environment,
 
a very powerful tool kit for the online communications
 
enthusiast.  One of the basic tenets of the WELL is that "tools,
 
not rules" are preferred solutions to most people-based
 
problems.  Menu-driven tools were created to give control of
 
file privacy to users, allowing them to make their files
 
publicly-readable or invisible to others.  The "Bozo filter",
 
created by a WELL user, allows any user to choose not to see
 
the postings of any other user.  Some WELL veterans, after
 
years of teeth-gritting tolerance of an abrasive individual, can
 
now be spared any online exposure to or encounter with that
 
individual.
 
 
 
   Other tools have been written to facilitate file transfers, to
 
allow easy setup of USENET group lists, to find the cheapest
 
ways to access the WELL, and to extract portions of online
 
conversations based on a wide range of criteria.  These tools
 
have all been written by ex-user employees or by WELL users
 
who received only free online time in exchange for their work.
 
 
 
   Free time on the WELL (comptime) has always been awarded
 
liberally by WELL management in exchange for services.  At
 
one time, half of the hours logged on the WELL in a month was
 
uncharged, going to comptime volunteers or staff.  Hosting
 
conferences, writing software, consulting on technical issues
 
and simply providing interesting and provocative conversation
 
have all earned users free time on the WELL.  As much as we
 
would have liked to pay these valuable people for their
 
services, almost to a person, they have continued to contribute
 
to the WELL's success as a business and as a public forum,
 
demonstrating to us that they considered the trade a fair one.
 
 
 
Conclusion
 
   As can be seen, the WELL developed from its unusual roots in
 
some unique ways.  The purpose of this piece is not to advocate
 
more WELL clones on the Net, but to demonstrate that if the
 
WELL could make it, other systems of the WELL's size and
 
general description could spawn from equally unique
 
circumstances around the country and offer their own special
 
cultural treasures to the rest of the world through the Internet.
 
What has been learned at the WELL can certainly be of value
 
when planning new systems because the WELL experiment has
 
demonstrated that big funding bucks, elegant interface design,
 
optimum hardware  and detailed business planning are not
 
essential to growing a thriving online community and, in the
 
WELL's case, a successful for-profit business.  More important
 
is that the owners and managers of the systems openly foster
 
the growth of online community and that there be a strong
 
spirit of open collaboration between owners, managers and
 
users in making the system succeed.  These critical elements of
 
viable community systems are attainable by local and regional
 
civic networks, small organizations and entrepreneurs with
 
limited funding and technical skills... and some heart.
 
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
 
 
Cliff Figallo ([log in to unmask]) is a Wide Area Community Agent who
 
also works part time as Online Communications Coordinator
 
for the Electronic Frontier Foundation.  Before coming to work
 
at EFF, Cliff was Director of the Whole Earth Lectronic Link for
 
six years (Aug '86 through July '92).  Cliff now lives in the San
 
Francisco area and works remotely at his job using the
 
Internet, Pathways, the WELL, CompuServe and America Online daily.
 
He can be reached via email at the following addresses:
 
[log in to unmask]    [log in to unmask]    [log in to unmask]    [log in to unmask]
 
76711,[log in to unmask]

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February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 4
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August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 3
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July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
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June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
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May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
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July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 5
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August 1998, Week 3
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July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 6
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5
January 1997, Week 4
January 1997, Week 3
January 1997, Week 2
January 1997, Week 1
December 1996, Week 4
December 1996, Week 3
December 1996, Week 2
December 1996, Week 1
November 1996, Week 5
November 1996, Week 4
November 1996, Week 3
November 1996, Week 2
November 1996, Week 1
October 1996, Week 5
October 1996, Week 4
October 1996, Week 3
October 1996, Week 2
October 1996, Week 1
September 1996, Week 5
September 1996, Week 4
September 1996, Week 3
September 1996, Week 2
September 1996, Week 1
August 1996, Week 5
August 1996, Week 4
August 1996, Week 3
August 1996, Week 2
August 1996, Week 1
July 1996, Week 5
July 1996, Week 4
July 1996, Week 3
July 1996, Week 2
July 1996, Week 1
June 1996, Week 5
June 1996, Week 4
June 1996, Week 3
June 1996, Week 2
June 1996, Week 1
May 1996, Week 5
May 1996, Week 4
May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 6
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
February 1996, Week 2
February 1996, Week 1
January 1996, Week 5
January 1996, Week 4
January 1996, Week 3
January 1996, Week 2
January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 6
December 1995, Week 5
December 1995, Week 4
December 1995, Week 3
December 1995, Week 2
December 1995, Week 1
November 1995, Week 5
November 1995, Week 4
November 1995, Week 3
November 1995, Week 2
November 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week 5
October 1995, Week 4
October 1995, Week 3
October 1995, Week 2
October 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week -15
September 1995, Week 5
September 1995, Week 4
September 1995, Week 3
September 1995, Week 2
September 1995, Week 1
August 1995, Week 5
August 1995, Week 4
August 1995, Week 3
August 1995, Week 2
August 1995, Week 1
July 1995, Week 5
July 1995, Week 4
July 1995, Week 3
July 1995, Week 2
July 1995, Week 1
June 1995, Week 5
June 1995, Week 4
June 1995, Week 3
June 1995, Week 2
June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
January 1995, Week 2
January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
December 1994, Week 4
December 1994, Week 3
December 1994, Week 2
December 1994, Week 1
November 1994, Week 5
November 1994, Week 4
November 1994, Week 3
November 1994, Week 2
November 1994, Week 1
October 1994, Week 5
October 1994, Week 4
October 1994, Week 3
October 1994, Week 2
October 1994, Week 1
September 1994, Week 5
September 1994, Week 4
September 1994, Week 3
September 1994, Week 2
September 1994, Week 1
August 1994, Week 5
August 1994, Week 4
August 1994, Week 3
August 1994, Week 2
August 1994, Week 1
July 1994, Week 5
July 1994, Week 4
July 1994, Week 3
July 1994, Week 2
July 1994, Week 1
June 1994, Week 5
June 1994, Week 4
June 1994, Week 3
June 1994, Week 2
June 1994, Week 1
May 1994, Week 5
May 1994, Week 4
May 1994, Week 3
May 1994, Week 2
May 1994, Week 1
April 1994, Week 5
April 1994, Week 4
April 1994, Week 3
April 1994, Week 2
April 1994, Week 1
March 1994, Week 5
March 1994, Week 4
March 1994, Week 3
March 1994, Week 2
March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994, Week 2
January 1994, Week 1
December 1993, Week 5
December 1993, Week 4
December 1993, Week 3
December 1993, Week 2
December 1993, Week 1
November 1993, Week 5
November 1993, Week 4
November 1993, Week 3
November 1993, Week 2
November 1993, Week 1
October 1993, Week 5
October 1993, Week 4
October 1993, Week 3
October 1993, Week 2
October 1993, Week 1
September 1993, Week 5
September 1993, Week 4
September 1993, Week 3
September 1993, Week 2
September 1993, Week 1
August 1993, Week 5
August 1993, Week 4
August 1993, Week 3
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August 1993, Week 1
July 1993, Week 5
July 1993, Week 4
July 1993, Week 3
July 1993, Week 2
July 1993, Week 1
June 1993, Week 5
June 1993, Week 4
June 1993, Week 3
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June 1993, Week 1
May 1993, Week 5
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May 1993, Week 3
May 1993, Week 2
May 1993, Week 1
April 1993, Week 5
April 1993, Week 4
April 1993, Week 3
April 1993, Week 2
April 1993, Week 1
March 1993, Week 5
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March 1993
February 1993

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