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COMMUNET Home

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COMMUNET  October 1993, Week 1

COMMUNET October 1993, Week 1

Subject:

Of Trolleys and Savage Inequalities (Re: Ken Dowlin Paper)

From:

"David H. Rothman" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

David H. Rothman

Date:

Sat, 2 Oct 1993 18:11:32 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (173 lines)

My thanks to Katherine Wingerson ([log in to unmask]) for sharing
with me Ken Dowlin's interesting new paper, "Global Village
Library/Community Electronic Information Infrastructure." I agree with
much of what he says. Even so, he may want to reconsider a few of the
statements he has made, especially his *possible* skepticism toward a
central national library online. As one of the country's top
librarians--he is city librarian for the city and county of San
Francisco--he has a wonderful chance to fight for a virtual national
library for rich and poor alike. Do we really want to replicate online the
"savage inequalities" of America's schools?  Without a central library of
the kind that I've described, we indeed will. Just as important,
regardless of current fads, some good technical and legal arguments exist
for a virtual central approach (combined with, yes, the opportunity for
servers to operate independently on a sister network). I hope that Kenneth
Dowlin will clarify his thoughts, distinguish between national and
international central databases and endorse the concept of a *national*
library online--full of free or low-cost books and educational software,
and perhaps other media as well.
 
>...The local libraries inter-connected with a sophisticated
>navigation system will become a Global Village Library. This is in
>contrast to the view of some technologists who believe that there is
>need for one gigantic electronic library in a central location. Not only is
>the one gigantic electronic library impractical, it is undesirable. The
>world is not homogeneous and we should not wish it so.
 
I myself favor a mix of Internet-style servers and a powerful, easy-to-use
*national* library--a form of electronic federalism. The big library could
pick up the best technology and some content from the servers. We could
replicate the virtual central library at different locations for
security's sake, and also to reduce communications costs. Remember how
many Americans once could go a good distance by following one trolley line
to the next? It was a fine system, but no replacement for express trains.
We need both trolleys and trains. Alas, much of the time, when I board a
trolley on today's Internet, it goes nowhere. I may get a message saying
that a server is down, or that the material is not available to me
(perhaps for copyright-related reasons). I'm also irked by slow-responding
servers. A virtual central database, on the other hand, could maintain
standards better and be more easily upgraded as technology progressed.
Response time is important to computer professionals and civilians alike.
Please note that I haven't the slightest problem with the central database
using distributed technology if that leads to more speed; I'm not as
doctrinaire as some of the more zealous of the boosters of autonomous,
servers. Let's pick up the best of both approaches!
 
As for the cultural question, who says that central libraries can be only
at the international level? What if they are national instead? And
suppose that local and university librarians, using federal money, but
working within their own allotments, can help choose books qualifying for
royalties from the national database. If anything, local authors in San
Francisco and other cities would fare much better than now. They could get
published more easily than under the present system, in which so many
houses are fixated on best-seller lists and national and international
markets. Isn't *content* one of the best ways of reflecting local
sensibilities? And couldn't this system give San Francisco authors a
better shot at a truly national market (and perhaps a global one, too,
since interested nations could exchange books and whole libraries)?
 
Moreover, with a giant central library for rich and poor alike, we'll
stand less chance of replicating online the "savage inequalities" of the
American school system. Otherwise the middle and upper classes will favor
their own private alternatives and neglect the poor. If nothing else,
libraries in Bethesda and Beverly Hills might enjoy better funding for
online acquisitions and services than those in Anacostia and Watts.
 
Those problems are not abstract to me. I see what the world of paper books
is like. I live in Alexandria, Va., where the public libraries have a
horribly limited selection of books, and where many on high-tech topics
are obsolete. I pity the students here without easy transportation to
better-off suburban libraries. Unless libraries could freely share online
holdings without copyright worries, Ken Dowlin's approach just would not
work. The Alexandria kids couldn't dial up the same material as those in
Fairfax County.
 
That leads to the issue of just how authors and publishers be compensated
and protected? To Ken Dowlin's credit, he admits that his vision does not
include "a system to deal with copyright and dissemination that protects
the ownership of information and knowledge in an electronic display." Hold
on a moment. As the author of six books, you can bet I have a slight
interest in the above. Other people do, too--Random House, Time Warner,
Knight-Ridder and the rest.
 
Certainly piracy of electronic books will be rampant, especially as net
bandwidths increase, unless we reduce the financial incentive for
bootlegging. That means a central database funded by general revenue.
Encryption alone won't work, since bootleggers can make illegal copies of
legal copies; never underestimate human ingenuity, even with precautions.
Just look at the copies spread of a recent novel that was supposed to
self-destruct when read off a disk. Technology is too quirky and
unpredictable to base intellectual protection on hardware or software
exclusively. Already some hackers are talking about digital collectives to
systematically break copyright laws; how could this *not* happen? I'm a
little baffled: Some "free market" zealots build their system around a
faith in human greed, but trust booklovers to overcome the natural
tendency to share books with friends. I hope that people influencing the
NII won't be so naive when they discuss protection.
 
Meanwhile I notice that an online bookstore wants readers to pay $5 to
download a 25-page short story from Stephen King, and I suspect that
bootlegging could be one reason for this outrageous price. I don't blame
the bookstore; how frustrating it is that honest customers must subsidize
bootleggers.  We return, too, to those pesky "savage inequalities." When
trying to get children to enjoy books, do we really want the meter running
at 20 cents a page? Stephen King just might be the author whose works most
excited a young reader, and I know I don't have to tell Ken Dowlin about
the relationship between recreational reading and reading skills in
general.  Without the central database, we'll have more of this.
 
An aside: The existence of a central library wouldn't rule out vendors'
publishing paper books or setting up their own databases. I suspect,
however, that in most cases, companies would make more money by focusing
on the big national library. If censorship problems arose, some Lyle
Stuart-style publishers could do very well with their own networks. I
myself, however, suspect that with a system of many librarians involved
with the central library, there would be more diversity and freedom of
expression than today. Presently the marketers reign supreme, and many
publishers won't publish an idea-focused book unless the author is a
politician or talk-show host. Rush Limbaugh is the publishing world's gift
to itself.
 
>He directs twenty-seven facilities with a $21 million operating budget.
>Projects currently in progress include the supervision of the building of
>a $140 milllion New Main Library and $20 million in capital improvement
>in the branch libraries. The New Main Library will be a 370,000 square
>foot building, doubling the size of the current Main...
 
While the $140-million building may be necessary today (given the
*current* state of technology), it should not be a source of pride but
rather a source of frustration. The $140 million could have bought more
than 140,000 portable computers even at today's prices. It could have paid
the advances on at least 20,000 first novels or have purchased tens of
thousands of new paper books, magazines and professional journals.
Attention, NPR folks and local equivalents: Are you tuned in?
 
I can see the need for $140-million libraries now; I don't know about the
future. Much of the money might better go toward small neighborhood branch
libraries--offering in-person advice and encouragement to children and
other people who want to dial up books from home. Talk about the need for
decentralization!
 
****************************************************************************
 
Anyone interested in my own views on electronic books and the rest may
e-mail me for a copy of teleread.txt (150K); I can send it in a flash.
Expanded from articles in the Washington Post and elsewhere, TeleRead
reflects my perspective as both a former poverty beat reporter and the
author of a book on portable computer technology. Although written for
American readers, TeleRead should also be of interest outside the U.S.,
especially in this era of international copyright law.
 
TeleRead addresses not only copyright issues, but also some nasty fiscal
ones. I tell how to work toward universal availability of powerful,
sharp-screened computers fit for reading, writing and other serious work.
Among other things, I note that the widespread use of intelligent electronic
forms could reduce the hundreds of billions of dollars in time and money
that Americans spend on paperwork for local, state and federal governments.
We could thereby cost-justify the database. I suggest that we all remember
an old principle of information management: multiple apps often make more
sense than individual ones considered alone. E-books could help justify
e-forms and vice versa. Isn't it time for the library community to link the
two issues together and associate electronic libraries with more efficient
government? What better way to build bridges to small business people and
others who on occasion question library spending?
 
____________________________________________________________________________
 
David H. Rothman                               "So we beat on, boats against
[log in to unmask]                              the current...."
805 N. Howard St., #240
Alexandria, Va. 22304
703-370-6540(o)(h)
____________________________________________________________________________

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