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COMMUNET  December 1993, Week 2

COMMUNET December 1993, Week 2

Subject:

* Use of the Internet in Non-profit Enterprise (fwd)

From:

"Arthur R. McGee" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Sun, 12 Dec 1993 17:04:42 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

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text/plain (204 lines)

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sun, 12 Dec 1993 16:23:14 -0800
Subject: * Use of the Internet in Non-profit Enterprise
 
 
 
                          Pauline Rothstein
 
                          Russell Sage Foundation
 
 
Public Access to the Internet
 
Use of the Internet in Non-Profit Enterprise:
 Internet Use in Foundations
 
     When I was asked to speak on the Use of the Internet in Non-Profit
Enterprise, I began my research with an examination of the non-profits I
know best, foundations.  I have been the Director of Information Services at
the Russell Sage Foundation for over ten years.  During that  time I have
seen our own organization go from two computers to a full scale LAN system
with the latest software.  As I interviewed foundation officers from my own
foundation and others, I began to realize how the distinct characteristics
of  foundation
culture could affect  the way they would use the Internet.   At this point I
decided to limit my discussion on the use of the Internet in non-profit
enterprise to  private foundations, those foundations which have their own
endowment.
 
     Foundations are  sometimes called "Pots of Money Surrounded  by People
Who Want Some."  They have a defensive attitude toward information.
Foundation executives want to control access to their offices.  Full
Internet email access to an executive would mean that anyone could get to
him, the exact opposite of what he wants.  Instead of access, he values
privacy, needs protection from information and does not want individuals
asking him for grants.  One executive told me "It is not my style to use
email."  Another was concerned about the problem of getting what she wants
from Internet without getting "email dumped on me."
 
     Foundations are not collaborative.    As one executive said,  "we are
autonomous. we are not engaged with other foundations."   Foundations value
their uniqueness.  They each prefer to hire their own consultant to help
them make judicious decision . Representatives from three organizations that
count many foundations as members, the Foundation Center, the Council on
Foundations, and the New York Regional Association of Grantmakers all gave
me examples of why it was difficult to provide  similar services in
the same way to individual foundations.    One example that stands out is
the Foundation Center  which developed a taxonomy for grants classification.
 It ran workshops, provided materials, and offered consultation services.
This expertly designed system was not used because each foundation had its
own consultant with its own way of classifying grants.  Although there was
no systematic study of grants classification systems in automated vs.
nonautomated foundations, there did not seem to be a difference in their
willingness to use a standard system for this purpose.
 
       It is clear from the limited research for this talk, that foundations
want to pursue their own niche without interference from too much
information.  One foundation president said, "I have no need to consult the
president of "X" foundation when I want to give a grant."   Foundations do
not perceive the need for using the Internet because it promotes two goals
that do not interest them, communication and sharing.
 
     In the one case I found where a foundation did attempt to promote
collaboration for its own project, the experiment failed.   In 1985 the
MacArthur Foundation funded the Mental Health Research Network.  Research
networks were established for four mental health areas:  depression,
successful aging, risk factors and conscious and unconscious processes.  The
foundation chose an electronic network to link 100 site locations. They
contracted with Martin Marietta to provide electronic access through its
PROSS system and launched an extensive two year training program  with two
staff members who visited all 100 sites to train groups of three to four in
the use of the system.  The system was not used.   Today there are eleven
groups in the Mental Health Research Network.  They all use the Internet for
email through MCI.  They do not use the Internet for file transfer.  They do
not use it to search for information.
 
          Foundations are not under market pressure.   Only their own board
members ask them for  results.   Often these results take years.  Thus,
there is no immediate need for information.   In this climate, using the
Internet is seen as unnecessary, a frill, something others may have to use
but foundations can exempt themselves.   It may be that this characteristic
of foundation culture is one reason the MacArthur networking project failed.
 
 
     Foundations are behind the curve in technology.   I discussed the
MacArthur project because it was unique.  Most foundations are not in the
forefront of modern technology.  Many have only one computer that they use
for wordprocessing.  Often it is an out of date model used by an
administrative assistant.  Where there is more than one computer in a
foundation, it is often incompatible with others in the office.   A modem is
not a standard piece of equipment in foundations.  In fact when I asked one
foundation executive if there was a modem in her office she said, "No."
Only when I spoke with one of her assistants did I find out that she used  a
modem for accessing a subject specific bulletin board.   She had no idea
that she could use the modem for anything else.   Even at the Russelll Sage
Foundation with our advanced LAN system and interest in technology, we were
driven to Internet access by the demands of our visiting scholars who come
from academic institutions with Internet access.
 
       "The management structure within foundations is out of date for
managing
information," said an executive from a foundation outside of an urban area.
  She felt that the key question for foundations today is "Where does it
belong?"  Phones, faxes, computers, and publications all call for an
integrated approach to technology.  They change staff job descriptions.
Foundations are not all ready to address these questions.  In this one
foundation they were beginning to cope with technology by providing
Internet use for messaging to everyone..  They had tried using the Internet
for database searching but found that staff did not want to search on the
Internet.  Individuals felt that this did not make them productive.  They
wanted an information professional to help them.
 
        In contrast to this relatively technologically advanced foundation,
another  large foundation has only one Internet address for the entire
foundation.  All messages come  through this shared mailbox.  There is a LAN
but few use it.  Internet is seen as a valuable source of information for
information professionals and researchers within the organization,
but it is not used by executives, program personnel or office staff.    The
Foundation Center has plans to use the  Internet for communication with its
own four field offices.  They have no thoughts about using it to communicate
with their members because most foundations do not have enough computers or
modems.
 
     There is not enough education in foundations.  Program officers need to
build in time to learn about technology.  Their job descriptions do not now
reward this kind of effort.  There is a structure in place to provide this
education to foundations.  TCN-Telecommunications Cooperative Network
already provides services to foundations and other nonprofits.  Many
foundations have their telephone service through TCN, a purchasing
cooperative for services such as MCI, Compuserve and other gateways to the
Internet.  TCN also provides services for private email networks, database
access and LAN connection and communication with the Internet.  Right now
only a limited number of foundations with LANS have the capability to
connect their systems to the rest of the world.   Bob Loeb from TCN said.
"People in foundations don't communicate with their own program people.
Some may use systems such as Internet for administrative purposes and not
let the program people know."
 
     As I thought about  the factors that inhibit foundations from using the
Internet,   the Council on Foundations' attempt to set up a bulletin board
for one group of their members seemed to me to be a perfect example of the
influence of foundation culture on electronic communication.    This project
began when the Strategic Issues Discussion Group formed a twenty member task
force for the Council.  They wanted members to share in
their discussion and thought that if they set up a bulletin board any member
could dial in, read issues and give comments.  The project began with the
installation of one  telephone line.  This was a separate computer with a
dedicated line.  Only one person at a time could call in to the bulletin
board.  People lost interest when the line was busy often.  At first the
Council thought they would use TCN for software, but they decided to hire a
consultant to
design a custom bulletin board.  The consultant did not develop an
instruction sheet or bulletin for users.  The inadequate hardware and
software might have doomed this project, but the most important reason for
its failure is that the Council members had nothing to talk about.  In a
telephone survey the Council staff came to the conclusion that their members
did not have the need to have this information quickly.  Many private
foundations have small staffs with too much to read.  They have too much
information.  In addition they suffer from what one staff member identified
as "The Gloria Problem".  Typically foundations are run by traditional
people.  A senior executive brings "Gloria," his secretary with him.  As
long as he has "Gloria," he has no need for anything else.   Gloria will
find everything he needs.  They can pay someone to get whatever information
they are missing.  The foundation program officers are  connected to their
interest area colleagues.  They are talking to their interest group already.
 The Council bulletin board function was redundant.  With only twenty people
in the user group, the Council couldn't use the bulletin board to send
mailings to its 1300 member organizations with 6,000 staff and 10,000
trustees.  The bulletin board was useless.  The Council on Foundations is
not giving up on the idea of providing leadership in the use of  the
Internet to its members.  They are proposing a new pilot project for two
selected Affinity groups.  These are established groups with similar
interest areas.  If the Council succeeds with these groups, they will
consider expanding the program.
 
     What shall we do now?  My answer is to educate foundations on how the
Internet can serve their  purposes.  Small experiments like the Council's
should be funded to explore the needs of foundations and the ways they can
use the Internet to fill these needs.  We need to use the media that reach
foundations as educational tools.   More publications for grantmakers should
include articles about the Internet.   The Chronicle of Philanthropy  has
included some excellent articles on the subject.  The Council on Foundations
had two programs on electronic communication at its annual conference in
Dallas in 1993.   More efforts of this kind should be supported.  Also, a
forum for calling attention to major stories on the Internet in general
publications such as the  New York Times, Time, and Newsweek is needed.  One
way to provide for this kind of education, dissemination of information,
technical support and training might be through an Information Clearinghouse
funded by foundations to provide these services.  Modeled on the ERIC
Clearinghouses for education information, these centers could provide the
customized service foundations use.  Before setting up such a clearinghouse,
it would be helpful to have some basic research studies on the styles and
use of technology in the few foundations that do use the Internet.
 
     In Technology for America's Growth:  A New Direction to Build Economic
Strength, a report issued in February 1992 by President Clinton and Vice
President Gore, they call for "investment in a National Information
Infrastructure and the establishment of a task force with the private sector
to design a national communication policy to insure rapid introduction of a
new communications technology."   Foundations  are  part of this private
sector.  To participate  effectively in this national effort, they will need
to learn more than they now know about the use and implementation of the
Internet  in their own organizations.

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