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COMMUNET Home

COMMUNET Home

COMMUNET  June 1994, Week 5

COMMUNET June 1994, Week 5

Subject:

communities

From:

Larry Manuel <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Wed, 29 Jun 1994 11:59:43 PDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (204 lines)

Re: Power politics, economics, and communities
 
 
Vigdor Schreibman's following report reminds me of the old saying,
 
"The more things change, the more they stay the same."
 
>=========================================================================
>FINS SPECIAL REPORT                                         June 28, 1994
>=========================================================================
>
>HOUSE PASSES TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE BILLS
>Measures Rammed Through Without Study of Major Revisions
>
>Washington, DC, June 28, 1994--The U.S. House of Representatives today,
>passed under suspension of the rules, two bills that will radically
>transform the telecommunications infrastructure: HR 3626, the "Antitrust
>and Communications Reform Act of 1994," and HR 3636, the National
>Communications Competition and Information Infrastructure Act of 1994."
>HR 3626 permits regional telephone operating companies to manufacture
>equipment and gradually enter the long-distance business.  It also
>sustains the right of the RHCs to engage in the information service and
>electronic publishing business.  HR 3636 permits local telephone and cable
>TV companies to enter each other's markets, and established the framework
>for "universal service" proposed by the Clinton Administration.
 
 
        All of the major infrastructure of the country has been
implemented with sweetheart deals for vested financial interests,
These have standardly been railroaded through Congress with negligible
public debate.  Southern Pacific is still a major agribusiness owner
arising from the railroad land grants of the last century.
 
        Will the public just sit back and let this happen again?
You betcha they will!  With the threat of major flight of
industry to less developed countries under NAFTA and GATT,
most of the population will be only too happy to see the U.S.
building a new major infrastructure that the less developed
countries can't afford, whatever the cost.  "Groupthink" is
too passive a term for this.  The deals have been cut; and
unless the opposition suddenly invents some new form of Populist
politics, they are in a minority.
 
        The information companies behind the "super-hype-way"
(This is the term used by the new CEO of Pacific Bell!)
know that the largest market is in interactive television
high bandwidth out, low bandwidth in).  More balanced systems
(low out-to-in ratios) are needed by people who generate large
amounts of information, but they are relatively few in number.
 
        Demographically the explanation is clear.  There is
a fundamental split between two modes of production, small-scale
(5 to 50 workers) and bureaucratic scale.  The core members
of small-scale enterprise tend to play multiple roles,
being skilled workers, managers, and owners at the same time.
These people must be innovative to survive and are potentially
the prime users of balanced communications networks.  In bureaucracies
roles are well separated; members tend to be more specialized
and less innovative.  They demand more incoming information,
which they are able to use because of the economic power provided
by their bureaucracies.  Since large enterprises are constantly
absorbing and restructuring small ones, more people are in
large, bureaucratic enterprises than in small, innovative ones.
Thus balanced information channels are less in demand.
 
        If a society allows bureaucracy to suppress the small
scale, stagnation sets in.  The classic case is Western Europe,
which went through five centuries of severe economic depression
(the Dark Ages) before it was able to rebuild viable urban economies.
Eventually with a combination of small-scale and bureaucratic
enterprise, it succeeded in culturing conquering the world.
The aristocracy is well aware of this history, so in its own
enlightened self-interest is willing to allow the small-scale
economic sector a moderate degree of independence.
 
        Complaining cannot by itself obtain this independence,
for then it is just an act of deference to social superiors.
People who wish to take advantage of the existing opportunities
for a moderate degree of independence have to build their
social networks and enterprises so that they are viable
in a secondary economic position.  Then they will be able
to exercise a moderate degree of political power.
 
        To throw some more light on the subject, I have annotated
Nancy Willard's description of community networks with
comments on the inherent weaknesses of it as a vision for
a political process.  I chose her description because I think it
accurately reflects the majority view of the Communet membership.
 
 
>Date: Fri, 10 Jun 1994 09:39:00 PST
>Sender: Nancy Willard ESD <[log in to unmask]>
 
>Community networks utilize advanced computer and telecommunications
>technologies, the "information highway", for local public interest
>information sharing and communication.  Community networks will provide
>all people with the ability to independently access a wide range of
>information, gain a greater understanding of the issues facing society,
>communicate more fully with other people and with the institutions that
>serve them, and participate more fully in the democratic process.
>
>Community networks are not just "on-ramps to the information highway";
>they are the local "commons".   They provide an electronic location for
>community access to the vast amount of public interest information
>available within the community through various agencies, organizations,
>and individuals, as well as the opportunity to discuss community affairs
>online.
 
        Providing "public interest information" is an overly narrow
focus.  Few people are able and willing to make good use of this
information in the absence of strong community organizations.
Providing access to new forms of social interaction, such as
annotatible-hypertext and computer-facilitated decision-making,
are a key part of building an empowering community network.
Otherwise, it just provides a gateway to organizations with antiquated
communication paradigms.  The nature of the "democratic process"
itself is on the line.
 
>Community networks are also not just a service that is provided
>"for" a community, they are a service created "by" a community.
 
>Community networking is a grassroots movement fueled by visionary people
>in communities throughout the U.S. and the world.  Many of these local
>programs are being developed through partnerships of libraries, education
>institutions, public broadcasting, cable access television, local
>governments, social service and health organizations, and community
>members.  Most of these programs are seeking to establish both local
>information and communication services and public access to the Internet,
>however, it is recognized that the most important role community networks
>will play in the future is in providing local information and opportunity for
>local dialogue, not the technical means of access.
 
        All services "for" a community are created "by" some
small, innovative sector of that community.  The question is
to what extent the "grass-roots visionaries" are going to accept
the limitations put on their vision by having to obtain resources
from the more conservative, established organizations within their
community.  In the near future, they may accept providing "local
information and opportunity for local dialogue" as a politically
practical goal, but for how long will this be acceptable
to the more culturally radical elements of the community?
 
>Community networks hold the promise of improving the quality of life for
>all Americans.  Community networks will help to insure that we do not
>become a society of information "haves" and "have-nots".  Those who are
>in danger of becoming the information "have-nots" include those who are
>poor, uneducated, live in rural communities or depressed urban areas, or
>are fearful of technology and change.  Community networks will provide
>access to those without computers through public access terminals and
>also provide training and support to their users.
 
        Not mentioned here is the problem that many of the "have-nots"
are alienated from the dominant types of information appearing on
telecommunications networks.  Mere "training and support" can't
address this question.  Only when the opportunities presented by
the networks are challenging enough to force existing social networks
into a dialogue and response will things move quickly.  At the heights
reached by the current discussion, this is still over the horizon.
 
>Community networks are established as non-profit, 501(c)(3) corporations
>and seek funding through a variety of sources, including user
>contributions, fees, corporate sponsorships, government, foundation
>grants and in-kind support from community collaborators.
 
        This particular mode of operation is restrictive,
for IRS registration as a nonprofit organization tends to limit
the organization to a relatively small financial base.  Other models,
such as, not-for-profit producer and consumer cooperatives with
educational and support staff, charging competitive user fees
need to be explored.  These are more likely to have the economic power
to create services superior enough to those of the large capitalist
service-providers to obtain widespread social support.
 
        Few people discussing networking have clearly seen
where the economic leverage lies.  When costs are apportioned among
millions of users, the cost of pricing a low bandwidth system
exceeds the cost of production, so it is a natural free good.
This requires, however, choosing a subsidizer.  Since interactive
communications are relatively hard to use, most labor required
is for educational and support staff.  Thus, bundling the cost of
production into service provision is the natural economic solution.
 
        To put some numbers on the discussion, in the not too
distant future there will be about one billion users in the world,
and about ten million service staff.  Most of the service staff
will be captive to bureaucratic production, but about one million
of them will be in small-scale enterprise providing service to
other small-scale enterprise.  How the labor of these people is
organized will determine the character of the low bandwidth
telecommunications culture.  Freenets in their current form
will be only a small part of this culture.
 
 
larens imanyuel
University for the Earth
[log in to unmask]
 
+++++++++
 
For community networks to represent a powerful tool for
positive social change they must help create community economics.
 
+++++++++

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