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COMMUNET  April 1995, Week 2

COMMUNET April 1995, Week 2

Subject:

Schools in Big Trouble According to Business Week

From:

"W. Curtiss Priest" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Wed, 12 Apr 1995 09:11:14 EDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (410 lines)

NOTICE: Copyrighted material, do not redistribute unless you
abide to the copyright notice appearing at the end of this article
 
As provided for under Section 107 of the 1976 Copyright Law, the
following piece is being distributed for non-profit purposes and for
comment, criticism, and teaching.  In cases where the purpose of
conveying information is to fully inform the reader, the entire body of
the work is reproduced.
 
 
 
************************************************************************
CITS Observations:
You can tell this piece is from Business Week.  Times are tough for
schools, so run it like a business.
 
In contrast, Komoski and Priest are suggesting that through the LINCT
coalition, schools and homes can have their cake and eat it too.
LINCT (Learning and Information Networks for Community Telecomputing)
provides a way to get technology into schools and homes through diverting
the 'cyberspace waste-stream' of older machines into homes and classrooms.
 
Barry Kort has also shown how kids can build networks themselves.  He talks
about a 12 year old girl constructing her own MOO on a cast-off DEC unix
box.
 
We have a public problem and we need public solutions.  Now is the time
for private foundations to come to the rescue.  Our current project
funded by the MacArthur Foundation is a tiny effort compared to the
resources Foundations have.  We need for foundations and government to see
that the 'bricks and mortar' of the 21st century will be a legacy of
public domain software that can run on older machines, enabling everyone
to participate.  Otherwise, we will truly have 'virtual ghettos' as the
lower 1/3rd of our population are unable to participate in the information
age.
************************************************************************
 
 
****************************Advertisement********************************
Subscriptions to Business Week available for $27.95 (30 issues) by
  calling 1-800-635-1200
****************************Advertisement********************************
BUSINESS WEEK: APRIL 17, 1995
Department: Cover Story
WILL SCHOOLS EVER GET BETTER?
Enrollments are up, money is tight-but there's hope
 
Americans are fed up with their public schools. Businesses complain that too
many job applicants can't read, write, or do simple arithmetic. Parents fear
that the schools have become violent cesspools where gangs run amok and that
teachers are more concerned with their pensions than their classrooms.
Economists fret that a weak school system is hurting the ability of the U.S.
to compete in the global economy. And despite modest improvements in test
scores, U.S. students still rank far behind most of their international peers
in science and math.
   And the woes of public schools may be about to get even deeper. Over the
rest of the decade, the nation's schools will face a financial crunch that
will be far worse than almost anyone had projected. Tight budgets will mean
overcrowded classrooms, less individual attention, deferred maintenance, and
elimination of such ``frills'' as music, art, and sports. And schools will
have difficulty paying for the computers and other information technology
needed to prepare young Americans for the new workplace.
   At the root of this school squeeze is an enrollment boom that has caught
educators by surprise. Originally, the student population was supposed to
rise by some 3 million students in the 1990s (chart). Instead, immigration
and higher-than-expected birthrates have fueled a student rush that will add
more than 7 million students to the schools by the year 2000, with more to
come after that. The school population is rising as fast as it did during the
baby-boom years of the 1960s.
   But this is not the 1960s, and overcrowded school systems can't expect big
wads of tax dollars to bail them out. There's no help in sight from Congress,
where Republicans have already proposed cutting federal spending on
education. And times are tight on the state and local level as well: Schools
already take more than one-third of state and local spending on goods and
services, and taxpayers are increasingly unwilling to pour billions more into
a system that is widely perceived as having failed.
   Indeed, the schools are in large part responsible for their own financial
problems. Only 52% of every school dollar actually gets into the classroom in
a typical large school district, according to Bruce Cooper of Fordham
University, working with the accounting firm Coopers & Lybrand (chart, page
67). And the schools have frittered away vast sums without much visible
improvement in student performance. Per-pupil expenditures, adjusted for
inflation, have risen more than 25% over the past 10 years. ``A lot of money
being spent in the schools is wasted,'' says Eric A. Hanushek, an education
economist at the University of Rochester. ``What we do know is the problem of
inefficient use of resources seems to be everywhere.''
   If there is a problem with bloated and inefficient government, public
education must be a big part of it. The country spends nearly $270 billion a
year on public elementary and secondary education, making that one of the
largest government expenditures (table, page 66). And the 6 million people
working for the public schools account for about 30% of all civilian
government employment.
   Schools, long used to speaking the language of education--curriculum, test
scores, standards--need to start talking about the issues of cost and
efficiency. U.S. corporations have become more productive by getting rid of
needless layers of management and focusing instead on improving efficiency on
the factory floor or the back office. In the same way, public schools have to
get more of their funds to the place where the process of learning actually
occurs: the classroom. ``One of the key concepts shared between the best
schools and the best companies is a clear focus on the customer,'' says
Katherine M. Hudson, chief executive of W.H. Brady Co., a Milwaukee
manufacturer. ``In the schools, that's the student.''
   Public education can benefit from the hard lessons learned by U.S.
corporations in recent years. For one, it's now drummed into the bones of
every successful corporate manager that productivity and quality cannot be
improved without accurate information about current operations. But that's a
place where the schools fall down badly. The vast majority of school
districts cannot answer the obvious question: How much money is actually
getting to the classroom? ``We keep pumping in more and more money, but we
don't know where it goes when it gets into the system,'' says Cooper. ``It's
like swinging an ax in the dark.''
   The second lesson from the private sector is the importance of
competition, which pushes schools to innovate and to break down rigid
regulations and work rules. That can mean a voucher system, as in Milwaukee,
where low-income parents can get money to send their children to private
school (page 70). Or it can mean allowing parents, teachers, and
organizations such as universities to set up ``charter'' schools--new public
schools, but outside the existing bureaucracy. A new study by economist
Caroline M. Hoxby of Harvard University shows that the availability of more
school choices can lead to lower spending and higher student achievement.
Indeed, competition can accomplish the goal of improving education without
the need for top-down standards or rules.
BREAKING POINT. And the schools must learn to make better use of their
physical and human resources, just as Corporate America has. Rather than
building expensive new schools, overcrowded school districts need to consider
alternatives such as shifting to year-round classes or using converted
surplus office or retail space. And the almost 3 million teachers in the
public school systems can be used more effectively. For example, educational
research shows clearly that spending on early education can pay off big--yet
high schools still have an average pupil-teacher ratio 19% lower than
elementary schools. ``We need to think about using those teaching resources
differently,'' says Lawrence O. Picus, an education specialist at the
University of Southern California.
   Certainly, business as usual is no longer an option. The combination of
soaring enrollments and tight finances means that pupil-teacher ratios are on
the rise for the first time in the postwar era. And the school squeeze will
hit some states harder than others. A new analysis by BUSINESS WEEK shows
that the states facing the toughest school squeeze over the rest of the
decade are California, New Jersey, and Maryland (chart, page 67). These are
states where weak economic growth is combined with fast-growing student
populations.
   As enrollments rise, schools across the country will come under increasing
pressure to curtail spending. Take Prince William County, Va., where hopes
for a new source of tax revenue were dashed when Walt Disney Co. abandoned
plans to build a historical theme park there. Student enrollments have risen
by 12% over the past five years even as the county's economy has slowed,
forcing the county to cut its school budget by 6% over the next three years.
``We're now at the point where cuts will start to affect our instructional
programs,'' says Robert A. Ferrebee, associate superintendent for management
at the county school district. Pupil-teacher ratios have already risen, and
some other cuts being contemplated include shortening the high school day,
imposing user fees for high school sports, and cutting out elementary music.
``PRETTY GRIM.'' Some areas have become the victims of their own success.
Vancouver, Wash., a largely blue-collar town of some 65,000, has become a
mecca for young families, drawn by the plethora of jobs at Hewlett-Packard
Co. and other high-tech plants in the area. As a result, the school
population had skyrocketed, compelling the town to spend nearly $60 million
in 1990 to build three new schools and renovate five old ones. By 1994, the
new schools were already overcrowded, and voters approved an additional $135
million in school bonds. But with enrollment expected to rise 30% over the
next seven years and the state school-construction fund running dry, that may
not be enough. ``Even with the financial commitment the community has already
made, we can hardly keep up,'' says Tom Hagley, assistant to Vancouver's
superintendent of schools. ``We're bursting at the seams.''
   And a flood of immigrants is imposing enormous costs on the school system
in places such as Southern California, New York City, and South Florida. For
example, school enrollment in Dade County, Fla.--which includes Miami and
Miami Beach--has gone up by 40% over the past 10 years, far exceeding the
growth in population. The reason? The retirees who once made up a big piece
of the county's population are ``re-retiring'' to locales farther north and
being replaced by young families, including many immigrants. As a result,
Dade's school budget has soared 60% since 1989.
   The financial problems for the schools go far beyond the enrollment
growth. Many school districts across the country have deferred essential
maintenance on their buildings. According to a new report from the General
Accounting Office, the U.S. would have to spend $112 billion to repair or
upgrade schools. That's certainly true in Escondido Union School District in
northern San Diego County, where 30% of the district's students are in
portable classrooms--relocatable double-wide trailers with leaky roofs and
holes in the floors. ``It's pretty grim here when it rains,'' says Jane
Gawronski, superintendent of the district. Nevertheless, on Mar. 7, Escondido
voters rejected a $52.5 million bond issue that would have paid for
renovations and new buildings.
   In addition, schools face the expensive prospect of moving into the
computer age. That includes not simply the computers--which the schools can
often get relatively cheaply--but the wiring and telephone lines required to
support them and the space to put them in. And as Corporate America has
found, the continuing costs of software and technical support for information
technology far exceed the initial investment. ``It's tough enough for schools
to get the initial money, let alone plan for upgrading,'' says Darryl Toney,
who manages Oracle Systems Corp.'s educational programs.
BLACK HOLES. The school squeeze is forcing districts to make hard choices as
to where to spend their money. In recent years, public policy--on both the
federal and state level--has emphasized helping disadvantaged students and
districts. Out of the $20 billion that the federal government provides for
elementary and secondary education, the bulk goes for disadvantaged or
handicapped students. And federal law requires schools to provide costly
special education to a growing number of students.
   Also, prodded by the courts, New Jersey, Texas, Michigan, Missouri, and
others have passed reforms in school financing to bring up spending in the
poorest school districts, sometimes at the expense of more well-to-do areas.
For example, Michigan recently shifted from relying on local property taxes
to finance schools--which favors the high-income districts--to using a
statewide sales tax. The state also capped spending growth in the richer
districts to give their poorer cousins a chance to catch up. Birmingham
School District, one of the state's wealthiest districts, will only be able
to boost per-pupil spending by 1.6% this year, while Shelby Public Schools in
low-income Oceana County will be able to raise spending by 6%.
   Still, while more equitable financing may be a good start, it's definitely
not enough. Over the past 20 years, a virtual army of academic researchers
has examined the question of whether spending more money raises student
performance. The result? At best, simply throwing money at the schools has a
marginal impact. The money has to be spent well for it to matter.
   Indeed, many voters believe that their school dollars are going into a
black hole. ``Virtually all school districts lack credibility inside and
outside the district,'' says Sheree Speakman, partner at Coopers & Lybrand.
   So with money tight, the first priority is to get control of spending. As
a result, more and more school districts are moving to ``site-based
reporting,'' which was first developed by Cooper of Fordham University and is
now being nationally distributed by Coopers & Lybrand and the U.S. Chamber of
Commerce. This accounting system shows where the money is going: instruction
vs. support services, or central administration vs. individual schools
(chart).
   Site-based reporting has been applied to more than 50 school districts
nationwide, including New York City, where it showed that out of total
spending of almost $8,000 per pupil per year, only $44 was budgeted for
classroom materials. And the new system gives school districts benchmarks for
seeing where their expenditures are excessive or falling short.
   For example, when the Nashville public schools crunched the numbers, they
discovered--much to their surprise--that they were spending 24% of their
budget on operations such as maintenance, compared with 18% for a typical
large school district (chart). The result? A program to bring down operating
costs. Now the district is using site-based reporting to help set spending
policy. ``We have a goal of increasing yearly the percentage of our
operational budget that goes into direct instructional spending,'' says
Edward Taylor, assistant superintendent for the Metro Nashville Public
Schools.
FEW REWARDS. The new system also shows what parents have always suspected:
Even within the same district, some schools do a much better job than others
in using money wisely. One school may get 30% to the classroom, while just
six blocks away, another school gets 80% to the classroom. With this
information, ``you can target the children who aren't getting the
education,'' says Cooper. ``You can do that kind of precision bombing because
you know where the money is.''
   And the frontline production workers--the teachers--may also benefit, if
the improved information is used to increase the amount spent in the
classroom. That's why teacher unions are cautiously supportive of the new
system. ``This will get us a long way toward understanding how to be more
efficient,'' says Jewell Gould, director of research for the American
Federation of Teachers.
   Certainly, current funding can be used more efficiently. For example,
school districts often put up expensive new buildings when existing space
could be used better. About 1,200 schools nationwide--mainly in
California--now run year-round, increasing student capacity by 30% to 50%.
And in Minnesota, some new charter schools are saving money by sharing
facilities with the local housing authority or recreation center and by
reusing existing retail space.
   And teaching resources can also be directed more effectively. It's
well-known, for example, that the early years of schooling are critical: A
student who slips behind when reading is being taught has little chance to
catch up. However, most school districts direct far more resources to high
schools, with their athletic programs and specialized courses. That's why
Missouri structured its aid program so that districts have a financial
incentive to reduce class size in the lower grades.
   And within schools, new programs are showing how to reallocate existing
money to better uses. For example, Success for All, a program developed by
Robert Slavin of Johns Hopkins University, uses intensive tutoring to keep
students from falling behind in the early grades. Now being used in about 200
schools in 20 states, it costs about $1,500 per student--but Slavin points
out that poor districts, which need the program the most, can cover most of
those costs by using funds that schools already get from the federal
government for disadvantaged kids.
   But even when such programs work, they are hard to sustain, because they
typically demand increased effort from teachers and principals and more
parental involvement. Moreover, schools have few incentives, financial or
otherwise, for better performance. ``People who do a good job get no rewards,
compared to people who do a mediocre or poor job,'' says Hanushek.
BUREAUCRACY BLASTERS. One possibility is to create alternatives to the
current public schools and let competition create pressure for both
educational and financial reform. At one extreme are vouchers allowing
students to attend the private or public school of their choice. The only
voucher system now in use is in Milwaukee. But five other states are
currently considering similar programs, focused mainly on low-income
families. ``When targeted at low-income families, folks who had been
wary--minorities and Democrats--have been coming out of the woodwork,''
according to Jeanne Allen, president of the Washington-based Center for
Education Reform, a pro-voucher group.
   But proposals to use vouchers often stir up enormous political opposition,
as does privatization--allowing private profit-making companies to run public
schools. The fear is that private schools would skim the best students off,
leaving the public schools with the dregs.
   Instead, an increasing number of states--including Minnesota, Michigan,
and Massachusetts--are encouraging a more limited form of competition by
allowing parents, teachers, and other groups to set up ``charter'' schools. A
charter school is a public school, in the sense that it has to meet certain
standards and not discriminate in admissions. At the same time, it's
independent of the traditional school system.
   Charter schools typically receive funding from the state for each pupil.
But because they must attract students who are not obligated to attend, they
have an incentive to spend the money in ways that will actually improve
education. And charter schools also benefit by running leaner. ``We can get
by'' on less money, says Nancy Miller, a teacher at the Minnesota Country
School, a charter school in its first year in LeSeuer, Minn., ``because we
don't build up all the bureaucracy traditional public schools do.'' With no
administrators, Minnesota Country School can afford to spend more on new
technology.
``INCENTIVES.'' And charter schools can also serve as a catalyst, pushing the
existing public schools to offer new programs and improve existing ones.
That's what happened in Boston last year, with the passage of a state law
allowing charter schools. Faced with the unsettling prospect of competition,
the Boston teacher's union agreed to the creation of new ``pilot'' schools,
free of union and school board rules. ``Charter schools provide new
incentives for school districts to become more responsive and
entrepreneurial,'' says Joseph Nathan, director of the Center for School
Change at the University of Minnesota.
   Competitive pressure may also lead to increased teacher productivity,
which is critical in light of the rise in teacher salaries (chart). That's
what's happening in Wilkensburg, Pa., a suburb of Pittsburgh, where
Alternative Public Schools, a private corporation, has offered to run an
elementary school at the same per-pupil cost but for longer hours and more
days per year. The counterproposal from the local teacher's union: They would
work 10 additional days a year, without any increase in pay.
   In some cases, entire school districts are remaking themselves. Take
Calvert County Public Schools in Maryland, where enrollment is skyrocketing
at a time when state funding is tight. The traditional school model won't
work, according to William Moloney, superintendent of the district. Instead,
the district plans to restructure its elementary schools: Teachers will stay
with the same kids two years, and schools will strive for a climate of work,
discipline, and values. ``Those things don't cost a lot, but they're
tremendously important,'' says Moloney. ``These changes will bring us more
education for less money.''
   The U.S. needs to encourage these sorts of initiatives. Is there a risk
that some of these new programs will go astray? Sure. But just as beleaguered
American companies were able to increase the quality and lower the cost of
what they made, so, too, can the public schools learn how to provide a better
education for America's children.
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Sad State of the Public Schools...And What Can Be Done
  Like the private sector, the public schools need to
  focus on boosting productivity and quality without raising
  costs. That means:
  -- Better information about how money is being spent today.
  -- Shifting more money into the classroom, where learning actually takes
     place.
  -- Using physical facilities and teachers more productively.
  -- Encouraging the creation of charter schools and other alternatives to
the current system in order to increase competition.
DATA: BUSINESS WEEK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By Michael J. Mandel in New York, with Richard A. Melcher in Milwaukee, Dori
Jones Yang in Seattle, Mike McNamee in Washington, and bureau reports Public
schools have frittered away vast sums without much visible improvement  in
student performance
Copyright 1995 McGraw-Hill, Inc. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to
(1) terms and conditions of this service and (2) rules stated under ``Read
This First'' in the ``About Business Week'' area.
 
Transmitted: 95-04-06 17:23:24 EDT (B34201)
***************************************************
 
Copyright Notice:  This article is protected under copyright law.
The right to disseminate this article is also protected under copyright
law (Section 107, 1976 Act).
 
The copyright law permits copying of materials for comment, criticism
and nonprofit purposes under the protection of fair use.
 
The copyright law also permits the copying of recent materials for the
"teachable moment."  This allows copying, in full, for educational
purposes.
 
Also, the courts generally interpret copyright protection by economic
criteria.  If the copying of a material reduces revenues to the
copyright holder, the court usually decides in favor of the plaintiff;
if the copying doesn't effect or increases the revenues, the court
usually decides on behalf of the defendent.
 
It is our judgment that occasional copying of a newspaper article does
not reduce revenues to the publisher and can actually create more
demand for a newspaper by attracting readership.  An excerpt provides free
advertising for the publisher.
 
Thus, under fair use, teachable moment, and economic criteria we
selectively convey this copyrighted material to others.
 
******************************************************
 
_______________________________________________________________________________
|           W. Curtiss Priest, Ph.D., Director       *********************** |
|      Center for Information, Technology, & Society *  Improving humanity * |
|                                                    *  through technology * |
|                  466 Pleasant Street               *********************** |
|                Melrose, MA  02176-4522         [log in to unmask]       |
|                  Voice: 617-662-4044  Gopher or WWW to our publications:   |
|   Fax: 617-662-6882      gopher.eff.org (under similar organizations, CITS |
| WWW: http://www.eff.org, under Documents & File Archives, under Gopher     |
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March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 5
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 6
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5
January 1997, Week 4
January 1997, Week 3
January 1997, Week 2
January 1997, Week 1
December 1996, Week 4
December 1996, Week 3
December 1996, Week 2
December 1996, Week 1
November 1996, Week 5
November 1996, Week 4
November 1996, Week 3
November 1996, Week 2
November 1996, Week 1
October 1996, Week 5
October 1996, Week 4
October 1996, Week 3
October 1996, Week 2
October 1996, Week 1
September 1996, Week 5
September 1996, Week 4
September 1996, Week 3
September 1996, Week 2
September 1996, Week 1
August 1996, Week 5
August 1996, Week 4
August 1996, Week 3
August 1996, Week 2
August 1996, Week 1
July 1996, Week 5
July 1996, Week 4
July 1996, Week 3
July 1996, Week 2
July 1996, Week 1
June 1996, Week 5
June 1996, Week 4
June 1996, Week 3
June 1996, Week 2
June 1996, Week 1
May 1996, Week 5
May 1996, Week 4
May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 6
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
February 1996, Week 2
February 1996, Week 1
January 1996, Week 5
January 1996, Week 4
January 1996, Week 3
January 1996, Week 2
January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 6
December 1995, Week 5
December 1995, Week 4
December 1995, Week 3
December 1995, Week 2
December 1995, Week 1
November 1995, Week 5
November 1995, Week 4
November 1995, Week 3
November 1995, Week 2
November 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week 5
October 1995, Week 4
October 1995, Week 3
October 1995, Week 2
October 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week -15
September 1995, Week 5
September 1995, Week 4
September 1995, Week 3
September 1995, Week 2
September 1995, Week 1
August 1995, Week 5
August 1995, Week 4
August 1995, Week 3
August 1995, Week 2
August 1995, Week 1
July 1995, Week 5
July 1995, Week 4
July 1995, Week 3
July 1995, Week 2
July 1995, Week 1
June 1995, Week 5
June 1995, Week 4
June 1995, Week 3
June 1995, Week 2
June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
January 1995, Week 2
January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
December 1994, Week 4
December 1994, Week 3
December 1994, Week 2
December 1994, Week 1
November 1994, Week 5
November 1994, Week 4
November 1994, Week 3
November 1994, Week 2
November 1994, Week 1
October 1994, Week 5
October 1994, Week 4
October 1994, Week 3
October 1994, Week 2
October 1994, Week 1
September 1994, Week 5
September 1994, Week 4
September 1994, Week 3
September 1994, Week 2
September 1994, Week 1
August 1994, Week 5
August 1994, Week 4
August 1994, Week 3
August 1994, Week 2
August 1994, Week 1
July 1994, Week 5
July 1994, Week 4
July 1994, Week 3
July 1994, Week 2
July 1994, Week 1
June 1994, Week 5
June 1994, Week 4
June 1994, Week 3
June 1994, Week 2
June 1994, Week 1
May 1994, Week 5
May 1994, Week 4
May 1994, Week 3
May 1994, Week 2
May 1994, Week 1
April 1994, Week 5
April 1994, Week 4
April 1994, Week 3
April 1994, Week 2
April 1994, Week 1
March 1994, Week 5
March 1994, Week 4
March 1994, Week 3
March 1994, Week 2
March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994, Week 2
January 1994, Week 1
December 1993, Week 5
December 1993, Week 4
December 1993, Week 3
December 1993, Week 2
December 1993, Week 1
November 1993, Week 5
November 1993, Week 4
November 1993, Week 3
November 1993, Week 2
November 1993, Week 1
October 1993, Week 5
October 1993, Week 4
October 1993, Week 3
October 1993, Week 2
October 1993, Week 1
September 1993, Week 5
September 1993, Week 4
September 1993, Week 3
September 1993, Week 2
September 1993, Week 1
August 1993, Week 5
August 1993, Week 4
August 1993, Week 3
August 1993, Week 2
August 1993, Week 1
July 1993, Week 5
July 1993, Week 4
July 1993, Week 3
July 1993, Week 2
July 1993, Week 1
June 1993, Week 5
June 1993, Week 4
June 1993, Week 3
June 1993, Week 2
June 1993, Week 1
May 1993, Week 5
May 1993, Week 4
May 1993, Week 3
May 1993, Week 2
May 1993, Week 1
April 1993, Week 5
April 1993, Week 4
April 1993, Week 3
April 1993, Week 2
April 1993, Week 1
March 1993, Week 5
March 1993, Week 4
March 1993
February 1993

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