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COMMUNET  April 1995, Week 4

COMMUNET April 1995, Week 4

Subject:

Equity and the Public Hand (Presentation to the Harvard Computer Society)

From:

"W. Curtiss Priest" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Communet: Community and Civic Network Discussion List

Date:

Wed, 26 Apr 1995 06:21:42 EDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

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Parts/Attachments

text/plain (642 lines)

                           W. Curtiss Priest, Ph.D.
                                 Director
                 Center for Information, Technology & Society
                             466 Pleasant Street
                              Melrose, MA  02176
   Internet: bmslibmitvma.mit.edu, Voice: 617-662-4044, FAX: 617-662-6882
 
                   This document may be distributed freely
 
                               April 25, 1995
 
                              An Open Discussion
                   with Government, Foundations, Non-profits
                            and Grassroots Efforts
 
 
                        The Will to Create the Future:
 
 
                               Public Issue #10:
 
                "Developing an Equitable Information Structure --
                          the Role for a Public Hand"
 
W. Curtiss Priest, the LINCT Coalition, Center for Information,
Technology & Society
 
Presented at the Harvard Computer Society, Cambridge, MA  02138
April 25th, 1995, 7 PM
 
PART I:    The Virtual Ghetto
PART II:   LINCT (Learning and Information Networks for Community
           Telecomputing)
PART III:  The Basis for a Public Hand
PART IV:   The Role for a Public Hand
 
 
PART I:
 
Preventing the Virtual Ghetto: Electronic Equity via Community
   Telecomputing
Ken Komoski, The LINCT Coalition.  Presented at the National Association
Science Technology and Society, 1995 National Meeting, Arlington, Va.
March 4, 1995
 
 
 
The Problem
 
In the information age, knowledge is wealth.  Unlike material wealth,
information and knowledge-based wealth can be shared and no one ends up
with less.  Such wealth keeps growing.  At present, however, access to the
source of this wealth -- information technology and the skill to use it  -
-  is restricted to the world's ''information haves."  What they have  are
the computers, modems and know-how to pan gold from the cyberspace
datastream.  The "gold" of information and learning within that datastream
may, indeed, be endlessly mineable, but not by the world's "information
have-nots"-- those who lack the technology and training of the
technologically privileged.
 
The Virtual Ghetto
Millions of technologically-disenfranchised 'have-nots' who cannot afford
the cost of that technology and training are walled off from potentially
life-changing tools and knowledge; isolated in the virtual ghetto.
Meanwhile, a growing information economy and its opportunities surrounds
them.  Escaping from this virtual ghetto means being able to afford the
cost of the technology and training needed to prepare themselves to share
in the production of  information-based wealth.
 
Not being able to afford the cost of that technology and training,
millions  of families, seniors and disabled citizens are, in fact, being
socially and economically disabled.  Unlike long-entrenched ghettos, the
new virtual ghetto is preventable.  But what is the cost of prevention?
At the local level, surprisingly little in dollars.  Start-up costs are
under $10,000, and annual operating costs can be kept to a dollar or two
per community member.
 
Cooperating computer-literate volunteers from businesses, libraries,
schools, churches, and municipal agencies can do most of what needs to be
done.  Together, they are the means of prevention.  All that is needed is
the will, the cooperation, and the skill to apply practical strategies at
the grassroots level, where the virtual ghetto is growing.  There is
increasing evidence that this can be done in any community where people
want to do it.
 
This is already happening in a few locally-developed telecomputing
networks in which information-haves are working with have-nots to prevent
proliferation of the ghetto mentality in their midst.  These community-
based, community-building efforts are enabling the technologically-
disenfranchised to learn-and-earn the technology and training needed to
transform the virtual ghetto into an economically-viable zone of
opportunity.
 
Assisting Community-based Prevention Initiatives
In order to help communities understand what they can do to achieve
electronic equity, a coalition of socially concerned not-for-profit
organizations in the U.S. has developed a low-cost model that communities
can adopt and adapt to enable the technologically disenfranchised to
learn-and-earn the computers and skills needed to mine the cyberspace
datastream.
 
The coalition is called LINCT, Learning and Information Networks for
Community Telecomputing.  The Coalition's singular purpose is to help
communities to develop locally-run, cooperative telecomputing networks,
committed to achieving community-wide equitable access to computer
technology, training, information and lifelong learning.  LINCT's mission
is to assist as many grassroots community-based initiatives as possible.
 
Getting Technology and Providing Training
LINCT begins by helping a community to get local and regional businesses
to participate in the BET Initiative (Businesses for Equity through
Telecomputing).  Through the BET Initiative, LINCT shows communities how
to acquire used but usable computers and modems that might otherwise
become part of the information-age wastestream created by businesses'
continuing need for faster, more sophisticated technology.
 
As BET-Initiative businesses donate equipment to a community's nonprofit
community network, it is channeled into a community-based Learn-and- Earn
Technology (LET) Initiative, run by local computer-literate volunteers  --
in libraries, schools, church basements, senior centers, etc.  All
training sites are connected to the community's telecomputing network,
accessible to and from homes, schools, libraries, churches, social
services, local businesses and municipal agencies.
 
At these volunteer-run training sites, technologically disenfranchised
families, seniors and the disabled learn-and-earn home computers-and-
modems via a unique lease-purchase program.  This program involves a
commitment by trainees to begin learning to use the technology at a local
training site, and to continue the training at home (these learning
commitments cover payment of the initial portion of the lease-purchase).
Then, by performing an agreed-upon amount of community service, applicants
pay off the principal -- they own the equipment they've earned with
"electronic sweat equity."
 
What is actually earned is a local tax-exempt currency, called Community
Network Credits (ComNet Credits) used to purchase computer equipment or a
variety of services.  One ComNet Credit is earned for every hour spent
learning to compute, and using the community's online network, also by
every hour spent working for others in the community.  The network's
training and computer-repair volunteers also earn local ComNet Credits for
each hour they spend teaching community members.  They, in turn, may spend
their ComNet Credits to employ other members of the community to provide
services they may need:  childcare or eldercare, housework,
transportation, shopping, dog walking, etc.
 
How Communities are Responding
In Suffolk County, NY their are five LINCT-affiliated communities, in
which volunteer local computer buffs are beginning to train workfare
mothers to do word processing, learn other employable skills, and to
access the help of personal online mentors enlisted from among a local
working womens' network.  School dropouts are able to penetrate math's
mysteries, school kids can get homework assistance or work with classmates
on cooperative projects, and would-be graphic artists, reporters, and
inventors can learn to make their earned keyboards and modems access
unlimited information and knowledge. On the community-wide electronic
bulletin board, housed in the public library, anyone in these communities
may access classified want ads for community service jobs.
 
Anyone using the network may earn as many credits as they have hours to
spend helping others -- while also helping to build a community of people
who can talk to each other, work for each other, and trust each other.
The network's systems operator (sysop) is contributed by the host library,
and starting in May 1995 the county's cooperative library services will
also begin providing free Internet accounts to all low-income families who
have earned a home computer and modem.
 
The model being pioneering in these communities with the help of the
LINCT Coalition is stimulating communities in New York City, Chicago, in
other cities, and in suburban and rural areas to adapt this model to local
needs and conditions.
 
Reclaiming useful technology
Sources of the hardware for powering electronic equity are readily
available:  computer cast-offs from business, government, and home users
who have opted for faster machines.  LINCT estimates that the U.S. alone
produces a flow of 20-to-25 million used, but usable computers and modems
each year -- equipment capable of tracking a moon shot or a whale
migration, but lacking the speed and multimedia bells-and-whistles now
demanded by sophisticated computer users in our technologically affluent-
effluent society.  By affiliating with the many nonprofit agencies that
are already helping to redistribute these used computers, the LINCT
Coalition is confident that with their help to local LINCT-affiliated
communities, every technologically-disenfranchised household may be
empowered with earned equipment and training that will
turn couch potatoes into distance learners and mentors,  strangers into
virtual and face-to-face friends, welfare/workfare recipients into
electronic job trainees, idle hands into dancing productive fingers.
 
Earned with ComNet Credits, this used equipment helps move locally-managed
telecomputing networks toward equity of access, rewarding volunteer work,
rewarding learning, and rewarding helping others.  ComNet Credits help
prevent the virtual ghetto by enabling people to convert personal time and
effort into needed purchasing power for computer equipment and training.
 
The Need to Act Now
Communities need to act now to avoid creating an electronic Tale of Two
Cities -- divided by an information superhighway with no on-ramps for
inhabitants of the virtual ghetto.  Community leaders, businesses, and
ordinary people to begin working together -- adopting and adapting LINCT's
working model --  to achieve local electronic equity -- neighborhood by
neighborhood, community network by community network.   The future costs
of not acting now to make this happen are too great.
 
 
For information contact:
 
The LINCT Coalition
The Hamlet Green, Suite 3
Hampton Bays, NY 11946
 
Voice: 516-728-9100   Fax: 516-729-9228
email: [log in to unmask]
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
 
 
PART II:
 
The LINCT Coalitiono The Hamlet Green oHampton Bays, NY 11946
Ken Komoski, Director
W. Curtiss Priest, Policy and Systems Coordinator
Voice: 516-728-9100   Fax: 516-729-9228
 
email:  [log in to unmask] (Komoski)
        [log in to unmask] (Priest)
 
 
LEARNING  AND  INFORMATION  NETWORK  FOR COMMUNITY  TELECOMPUTING
 
Mission, Model, and Outreach
 
The LINCT Coalition is a group of socially concerned not-for-profit
organizations and affiliates dedicated to helping communities achieve
electronic equity for all community members  through the development of
local telecomputing networks.
 
LINCT  Membership Organizations are:
 
The Center for Information, Technology, & Society, Melrose, MA
 
The Educational Products Information Exchange (EPIE) Institute
Hampton Bays, NY
 
Non-Profit Computing, Inc. New York, NY
 
The Time Dollar Network, Washington, DC
 
Affiliated Organizations:
 
The National Urban League
The Hispanic Federation of New York
The New York Public Library
The United Neighborhood Houses  of New York
American Association for the Advancement of Science,  SLIC Project
(Science Linkages in the Community)
 
A Clear Mission
LINCT's mission is to help communities to acquire both the technology and
the know-how needed to make cost-effective, community-wide electronic
networks accessible to all citizens, but especially to poor and
economically marginal families, seniors and the disabled.
 
A Helpful Model and Process
LINCT's model and process helps a community to provide those who cannot
afford the technology with the opportunity to learn-and-earn the
computers, the connectivity, and the technical support needed to access
local and global communication, learning, health, and employment
opportunities.
 
While thinking globally, LINCT's mission is to help communities to act
locally by applying a model that begins by assisting local people to
establish and manage a not-for-profit, cooperative telecomputing network
that is open to all community members, and that connects them to the
world.
 
Help for Local Electronic Equity Initiatives
To help a community ensure that even its poorest members may acquire the
technology and training they need to access local and global networks,
LINCT helps communities to:
 
o  acquire a share of the estimated twenty-to-thirty million used, but
still usable computers generated each year by business, government, and
home users, and to utilize those computers to build a local network that
is accessible to all community members (used computers are made available
to a local electronic equity initiative via the first three of LINCT's
Electronic-Equity Initiatives:
 
BET (Businesses for Equity in Telecomputing) Initiative
GET (Government for Equity in Telecomputing) Initiative
PET (People for Equity in Telecomputing) Initiative
 
o develop a community-based Learn-and-Earn Technology  (LET)  Initiative,
conducted at local training sites that are managed by local computer-
literate volunteers.  At these sites poor and economically-struggling
families may earn home computers and software by learning how to
telecommunicate via the community's electronic network  (the computers is
not "loaners", they become owned by those who have earned the technology
by having learned to use it;
 
o establish and manage a program of electronic education and job training
opportunities via a local DIRECT (Digital Resources for Education and
Career Training) Initiative accessible to all homes, community training
sites, libraries, schools, hospitals, churches, etc., to facilitate
lifelong learning and employment opportunities for all community members;
 
o develop and manage a program of citizen-to-citizen work opportunities,
facilitated by a community-wide electronic Community Jobs Bulletin Board
and "jobs-matching service," through which community members may work for
each other and earn Community Network Credits (ComNet Credits); citizens
and families may use these tax-exempt credits via the ComNet Credits
Initiative to "purchase" needed services from others.
 
LINCT's Outreach Program
The LINCT Coalition is preparing to launch a major program of outreach
designed to motivate and to assist local communities to locally adopt and
adapt the electronic-equity initiatives described above.  LINCT is
currently seeking the funding that will enable it to begin this outreach
program by Fall 1995.
 
The goal is to identify communities that are seriously interested in
affiliating with the LINCT Coalition's mission to achieve electronic
equity for the technologically disenfranchised through the development of
community-based telecomputing cooperatives.
 
When launched, LINCT's Outreach Program will include the following
resources to all communities wishing to affiliate with LINCT's Electronic
Equity Initiatives:
 
1. a community-awareness kit: Achieving Electronic Equity in Your
Community;
 
2.  a how-to manual,Creating Community-based Electronic-Equity
Initiatives,  (with supporting software) to assist already-
established community networks to (a) acquire used computers via the
BET, GET, and PET Initiatives, (b) establish a learn-and-earn
training (LET) Initiative, (c) develop a local adaptation of the
DIRECT Initiative;
 
3. a how-to manual, Developing and Managing a Community Credits
(ComCredit) Program (with supporting management software).
 
4. online technical support.
 
The Electronic Equity Fund/Seed-Grant Program
LINCT intends to establish The Electronic Equity Fund as the centerpiece
of its outreach program. (LINCT is currently developing capitalization for
the Fund from private foundations and corporations.)
 
Once the Fund is established, LINCT will invite communities to submit
"seed-grant" proposals to help launch -- or to help re-focus existing --
local community-wide electronic networks working to achieve electronic
equity.  Seed grants will include both financial support and online
technical support, plus network management hardware and software, and the
"awareness" and "how-to" manuals described above.
 
In order to qualify for seed-grant funding, a community's proposal must
demonstrate a written commitment to match seed-grant funds through local
fund-raising, plus a well-articulated plan for developing ongoing local
funding for ongoing maintenance of the electronic network and its  equity
initiatives.  LINCT plans to provideElectronic Equity Proposal Guidelines
that will be available for distribution to communities interested in
applying for seed-grant support from the Electronic Equity Fund.
 
LINCT will establish evaluation criteria for assessing the quality of
proposals submitted by communities.  Proposals approved for funding by
LINCT will be funded by the Electronic Equity Fund, which will grant money
to communities with proposals approved by both LINCT and the Fund's
Financial Oversight Committee.  Through the Fund's seed-grant program,
LINCT hopes to help hundreds of communities to achieve electronic equity.
 
 
PART III:
 
Basis for the Public Hand
 
Excerpted and adapted from the Character of Information
Report to the U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment
1986, 1994
W. Curtiss Priest
Center for Information, Technology & Society
 
To understand the role of the "Public Hand" one must, in a market driven
economy, identify those areas where markets will under-supply information
or where economic and other forces cause information to disturb moral or
ethical bases of society.
 
The following discussion describes fifteen characteristics of information
in commerce and transactions.  By focussing on the nine characteristics
related to market-failure and the characteristics related to freedom and
privacy, we can better understand the need for a "public hand."
 
Characteristics and Properties of Information
    in Commerce and Transactions
        1.1  Market Related Characteristics of Information as
             a Commodity
                1.1.1  Intrinsic Co-production
                1.1.2  Time Constrained Consumption of Information
                1.1.3  High Investment to Reproduction Cost Ratios
                       for Information
                1.1.4  Relevance of Information More Variable
                       Across Consumers
        1.2  Market-failure Related Characteristics of Information
                1.1.1  Public Good Characteristics
                        1.1.1.1  Inappropriability
                        1.1.1.2  Non-depletability
                1.1.2  Externalities
                1.1.3  Indivisibilities (of supply)
                1.1.4  Economies of Scale and Scope
                1.1.5  Inherent Uncertainty and Risk in Information
                       Production
                1.1.6  Information/Knowledge About the Information
                1.1.7  Intangibility
                1.1.8  Transaction Costs and Information
                1.1.9  Equity/Distributional Considerations
 
        1.3  Non-market Related Characteristics of Information
                1.3.1  High Intrinsic Relationship to Human Welfare
                1.3.2  High Intrinsic Relationship to Freedom and
                       Privacy
 
        It is useful to identify what distinguishes information from other
forms of property.  Fifteen distinguishing characteristics of information
are identified and discussed.
        These characteristics are useful for generally inquiring into the
nature and purpose of information in society.  Summarized below are brief
definitions of the fifteen characteristics and introductory remarks about
the general importance of the distinguishing characteristic.
 
Definitions and Introduction to Fifteen
Characteristics of Information
 
As a Commodity:
 
 1.  Intrinsic Co-production
The character of information to be instrumental in achieving other goods
and outcomes.  This character makes information inherently more valuable
than goods that are not instrumental in character.
 
 2.  Time Constrained Consumption
The character of information to occupy more consumer time per dollar
expenditure than other commodities.  This characteristic combined with the
relatively low reproduction cost characteristic (3) has long run
employment implications.
 
 
 3.  High Investment to Reproduction Cost Ratios
The creation costs of information divided by the cost of reporducing one
unit of the good.  The implications of this characteristic are economies
of scale and scope, and resulting market structure.
 
 
 4.  Relevance, More Variable Across Consumers
 
The character of particular information be be acquired usually only once.
The results is high variability in consumption by each consumer.  This
characteristic tends to work in the opposite direction of low reproduction
costs, since it implies that information will become more and more
customized and particularlized.
 
 
Market-failure Related Characteristics:
 
 5.  Public Good
 
The same information can be used by many consumers without interference.
 
Inappropriability
 
The difficulty in receiving full market compensation for the creation of
information due to the problem of exclusion.  The result is under-
production and under-compensation.
 
 
Non-depletability
 
Information does not dissipate with use.  Producers must compete with past
producers but society benefits with an accumulation of knowledge.
 
Goods with substantial public good characteristics such as national
defense,  recreational parks, and safety facilities such as lighthouses
are usually supplied by the government to reduce the "free rider problem"
associated with inappropriability.
 
 
 6.  Externalities
 
The effects of information, usually positive, that are not accounted for
in its price.  The effects of information, especially as education, have
considerable positive externalities in terms of reducing unemployment and
increasing general social welfare.
 
 
 7.  Indivisibilities (of supply)
 
Information must be purchased in lumps; these lumps may be vastly greater
than the information actually sought.  This characteristic along with the
variable relevance characteristic will contribute to utilization of
information technology that reduce indivisibilities and permit
customization.
 
 
 8.  Economies of Scale and Scope
 
1)  Decreasing unit costs when the scale of operation is increased; and 2)
decreasing costs associated with joint production.
Historically, information distribution such as telegraph, telephone,
radio, and television have exhibited sufficient economies of scale and
scope as to require government regulation to reduce problems associated
with natural monopolies.
 
 
 9.  Uncertainty and Risk in Production
 
The inability of firms to produce information when risks and uncertainties
are present.  A problem, in particular, in the generation of basic
knowledge that requires substantial investment in research.
 
 
10.  Information/Knowledge
 
Information about information is less likely to be available because of
appropriability problems.  This leads to under-consumption of information
due to problems of search.
 
 
11.  Intangibility
 
The character of the value of some information to be non-monetizable.
Information is the basis of education, communication, and other activities
which are difficult to value because the contribution of these activities
to the welfare of society is largely intangible.
 
 
12.  Transaction Costs
 
The additional costs incurred by the producer in appropriating the value
of information.  [Transaction costs, in the economic sense, are those
costs associated with negotiation, contracting, and enforcement, and does
not refer to the the general costs related to distributing or transmitting
information.]  Transaction costs are a major contribution to
indivisibilities in the supply of information since contracting and
enforcement costs are difficult to reduce below a certain minimum.
 
13.  Equity/Distribution Considerations
 
At any time a society may decide that the distribution of goods is
inequitable.  This is done under various arguments regarding equity and
fairness.
 
John Rawls argues that one can think in terms of a social contract made in
the "primal position" -- this is a position where no individual knows
their "station" in society and then agrees to a contract that divides
goods based on various arguments.  One argument, related to capitalistic
society, is that one would have some people "better off" if it made others
better off than they would otherwise be.  This is Rawls' justification for
high salaries for the heads of industry.
 
In terms of information, we can think in terms of minimal information
standards that we would all wish to maintain.  That is, no matter what
your station were, you could be assured that you would have access to a
certain minimum information base.
 
In a society that becomes increasingly information centered, the minimum
information base might be raised because of its centrality in a person's
ability to be comfortable and capable in such a society.
 
 
Non-market Related Characteristics:
 
14.  Intrinsic Relationship to Human Welfare
 
Human welfare is a product of individuals and groups achieving desired
outcomes.  Thus, information is intrinsically related to human welfare in
that it inherently facilitates the achievement of outcomes.
 
 
15.  Intrinsic Relationship to Freedom and Privacy
 
Freedom -- Information affects the range of choices available to the
individual.  Freedom is a lack of restriction on choices.  Thus
information leads to greater freedom.
 
Privacy -- Incomplete information may result in defamation of character.
Therefore, information must be selectively made private to reduce the
probability of defamation.
 
PART IV:
 
Role of the Public Hand
 
Let us look at the role of the public hand by examining some examples:
 
1.  Public Goods - In our society we believe that basic civil knowledge is
critical to the functioning of our society.  It is for this reason that we
educate everyone in history and civics.  In an information society we
would wish to continue to assure that everyone can access and use
information related to the public good.  In fact, the level of knowledge
and access might be expected to increase as it becomes easier and cheaper
to provide for the public good.  As the result of our concern for public
goods, we will wish to examine the continuing role of public institutions
such as libraries and schools.  We will wish to ensure that these
institutions can function well in the new information infrastucture (or
cyberspace).
 
2.  Equity - As described early, we are at risk of creating virtual
ghettos.  Why is this offensive?  Not only do virtual ghettos work against
our interest in the public good, in the first example, but virtual ghettos
offend our sense of fairness and justice.  We wish, as a society, to
ensure that no matter what station a person has, that station will be
assured a minimal standard of access to information.
 
3.  Freedom - Ithiel Poole wrote a famous book called Technologies of
Freedom.  He rightly identified that communication technologies are
technologies of freedom.  These technologies intrinsicly increase the
"choice space" and increase freedom.  In our society, we have strong
sanctions to preserve freedoms and, thus, in cyberspace we will wish to
continue those sanctions and make sure that no person or corporation
infringes on those liberties.
 
4.  Privacy - Privacy is a strange beast.  To those who know us well, we
need be less private, yet to others, who may threaten our liberties, we
need to maintain secrets.  Information is central to privacy.  From
medical records to criminal records we are continually at risk of someone
knowing something about us and using it against us.  This argues for
legislative and public policy to guard privacy.  (Yet no where in the
Constitution or the Bill of Rights is there a "right to privacy.")
 
Now I challenge everyone one of you to turn to the characteristics of
information and work out your own examples for the role of the Public
Hand.
 
_______________________________________________________________________________
|           W. Curtiss Priest, Ph.D., Director       *********************** |
|      Center for Information, Technology, & Society *  Improving humanity * |
|                                                    *  through technology * |
|                  466 Pleasant Street               *********************** |
|                Melrose, MA  02176-4522         [log in to unmask]       |
|                  Voice: 617-662-4044  Gopher or WWW to our publications:   |
|   Fax: 617-662-6882      gopher.eff.org (under similar organizations, CITS |
| WWW: http://www.eff.org, under Documents & File Archives, under Gopher     |
_____________________________________________________________________________|

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May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
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March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 5
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 6
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5
January 1997, Week 4
January 1997, Week 3
January 1997, Week 2
January 1997, Week 1
December 1996, Week 4
December 1996, Week 3
December 1996, Week 2
December 1996, Week 1
November 1996, Week 5
November 1996, Week 4
November 1996, Week 3
November 1996, Week 2
November 1996, Week 1
October 1996, Week 5
October 1996, Week 4
October 1996, Week 3
October 1996, Week 2
October 1996, Week 1
September 1996, Week 5
September 1996, Week 4
September 1996, Week 3
September 1996, Week 2
September 1996, Week 1
August 1996, Week 5
August 1996, Week 4
August 1996, Week 3
August 1996, Week 2
August 1996, Week 1
July 1996, Week 5
July 1996, Week 4
July 1996, Week 3
July 1996, Week 2
July 1996, Week 1
June 1996, Week 5
June 1996, Week 4
June 1996, Week 3
June 1996, Week 2
June 1996, Week 1
May 1996, Week 5
May 1996, Week 4
May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 6
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
February 1996, Week 2
February 1996, Week 1
January 1996, Week 5
January 1996, Week 4
January 1996, Week 3
January 1996, Week 2
January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 6
December 1995, Week 5
December 1995, Week 4
December 1995, Week 3
December 1995, Week 2
December 1995, Week 1
November 1995, Week 5
November 1995, Week 4
November 1995, Week 3
November 1995, Week 2
November 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week 5
October 1995, Week 4
October 1995, Week 3
October 1995, Week 2
October 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week -15
September 1995, Week 5
September 1995, Week 4
September 1995, Week 3
September 1995, Week 2
September 1995, Week 1
August 1995, Week 5
August 1995, Week 4
August 1995, Week 3
August 1995, Week 2
August 1995, Week 1
July 1995, Week 5
July 1995, Week 4
July 1995, Week 3
July 1995, Week 2
July 1995, Week 1
June 1995, Week 5
June 1995, Week 4
June 1995, Week 3
June 1995, Week 2
June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
January 1995, Week 2
January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
December 1994, Week 4
December 1994, Week 3
December 1994, Week 2
December 1994, Week 1
November 1994, Week 5
November 1994, Week 4
November 1994, Week 3
November 1994, Week 2
November 1994, Week 1
October 1994, Week 5
October 1994, Week 4
October 1994, Week 3
October 1994, Week 2
October 1994, Week 1
September 1994, Week 5
September 1994, Week 4
September 1994, Week 3
September 1994, Week 2
September 1994, Week 1
August 1994, Week 5
August 1994, Week 4
August 1994, Week 3
August 1994, Week 2
August 1994, Week 1
July 1994, Week 5
July 1994, Week 4
July 1994, Week 3
July 1994, Week 2
July 1994, Week 1
June 1994, Week 5
June 1994, Week 4
June 1994, Week 3
June 1994, Week 2
June 1994, Week 1
May 1994, Week 5
May 1994, Week 4
May 1994, Week 3
May 1994, Week 2
May 1994, Week 1
April 1994, Week 5
April 1994, Week 4
April 1994, Week 3
April 1994, Week 2
April 1994, Week 1
March 1994, Week 5
March 1994, Week 4
March 1994, Week 3
March 1994, Week 2
March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994, Week 2
January 1994, Week 1
December 1993, Week 5
December 1993, Week 4
December 1993, Week 3
December 1993, Week 2
December 1993, Week 1
November 1993, Week 5
November 1993, Week 4
November 1993, Week 3
November 1993, Week 2
November 1993, Week 1
October 1993, Week 5
October 1993, Week 4
October 1993, Week 3
October 1993, Week 2
October 1993, Week 1
September 1993, Week 5
September 1993, Week 4
September 1993, Week 3
September 1993, Week 2
September 1993, Week 1
August 1993, Week 5
August 1993, Week 4
August 1993, Week 3
August 1993, Week 2
August 1993, Week 1
July 1993, Week 5
July 1993, Week 4
July 1993, Week 3
July 1993, Week 2
July 1993, Week 1
June 1993, Week 5
June 1993, Week 4
June 1993, Week 3
June 1993, Week 2
June 1993, Week 1
May 1993, Week 5
May 1993, Week 4
May 1993, Week 3
May 1993, Week 2
May 1993, Week 1
April 1993, Week 5
April 1993, Week 4
April 1993, Week 3
April 1993, Week 2
April 1993, Week 1
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March 1993
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