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MEDLIB-L  January 1996, Week 4

MEDLIB-L January 1996, Week 4

Subject:

Beta Carotene studies (fwd)

From:

Margaret Wagner <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Medical Libraries Discussion List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 25 Jan 1996 07:48:04 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (197 lines)

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Wed, 24 Jan 1996 08:22:57 -0500 (EST)
From: Darryl Hamson <[log in to unmask]>
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Beta Carotene studies
 
The following is a report I found at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research
Center Web site (don't have the URL handy, but you can get at it from
various health care locations). It seems to be more complete than the
several wire service reports I've seen.
 
 
 
      BETA CAROTENE AND VITAMIN A HALTED IN LUNG CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL
 
 
 
   Investigators conducting the Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial
   (CARET), a large study of the combination of beta carotene and vitamin
   A as preventive agents for lung cancer in high-risk men and women,
   terminated the intervention last week after an average of four years
   of treatment and told the 18,314 participants to stop taking their
   vitamins. Interim study results indicate that the supplements provide
   no benefit and may be causing harm.
 
   Investigators in another trial, the Physicians' Health Study, said
   today that their study of 22,071 U.S. male physicians ended on
   schedule, Dec. 31, 1995, after more than 12 years of treatment. The
   study showed no significant evidence of benefit or harm from beta
   carotene on cancer or cardiovascular disease.
 
   Both studies have been funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI)
   of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Physicians' Health
   Study was also funded by NIH's National Heart, Lung, and Blood
   Institute.
 
   CARET's lead investigator, Gilbert S. Omenn, M.D., Ph.D., of the Fred
   Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington
   School of Public Health in Seattle, explained that regular independent
   review of the study data showed that lung cancer incidence was
   unlikely to be reduced by the daily intervention of 30 milligrams (mg)
   of beta carotene and 25,000 international units (IU) of vitamin A by
   the scheduled end of the study and that there was a substantial
   possibility that the supplements might be harming the participants,
   who are smokers, former smokers, and men exposed to asbestos on the
   job.
 
   CARET results to date, including 388 people diagnosed with lung cancer
   and 974 deaths from all causes, showed 28 percent more lung cancers
   and 17 percent more deaths in participants taking beta carotene and
   vitamin A. While these interim results are not significant evidence of
   harm from a statistical standpoint, they are similar to the results of
   the Alpha-Tocopherol,
 
   Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Lung Cancer Prevention Trial published in 1994,
   which showed 18 percent more lung cancers and 8 percent more deaths in
   the portion of the 29,133 male smokers in Finland who took 20 mg of
   beta carotene daily for five to eight years.
 
   Letters asking the 18,314 CARET participants to stop taking their
   vitamin supplements or placebos were mailed Jan. 13. Investigators
   plan to follow the participants for at least five more years to
   determine the long-term effects of the intervention, which was
   interrupted 21 months early.
 
   Omenn said that CARET data also raise the possibility that former
   smokers, who comprised 34 percent of the participants when recruited,
   may respond more favorably to
   vitamin A and beta carotene than current smokers, but that the data
   are too limited to draw any conclusions at this time.
 
   Results from the Physicians' Health Study, the trial of 22,071 U.S.
   male physicians taking 50 mg of beta carotene or a placebo every other
   day for 12 years, showed that
   beta-carotene supplements had no significant effect -- positive or
   negative -- on cancer or cardiovascular disease in this population of
   mostly nonsmokers (11 percent are current smokers while 51 percent
   smoked at some time in their life). Charles H. Hennekens, M.D.,
   Dr.P.H., of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital,
   Boston, headed this study, which showed in 1988 that low-dose aspirin
   reduces the risk of a first heart attack.
 
   In response to the lack of benefit seen in CARET, the Physicians'
   Health Study, and the ATBC trial, another ongoing trial is removing
   beta carotene supplements from its intervention. The Women's Health
   Study, a trial of 40,000 female health professionals, headed by Julie
   Buring, Sc.D., of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's
   Hospital, began in 1992. The study will continue to evaluate
   every-other-day doses of 600 IU of vitamin E and 100 mg of aspirin or
   placebos.
 
   Public Health Concern
 
   The results of CARET and the Physicians' Health Study provide strong
   evidence of no benefit from beta carotene supplements and raise
   questions about their safety for the general public. "The National
   Cancer Institute has never had a recommendation for Americans to take
   supplements," said Peter Greenwald, M.D., Dr.P.H., director of NCI's
   Division of Cancer Prevention and Control. "The best advice for
   smokers who want to reduce their risk of lung cancer is still the most
   direct: Stop smoking. Results from CARET and the ATBC Trial do
   suggest, however, that smokers should avoid beta carotene
   supplements."
 
   Omenn underscored the "quit smoking" message by praising the many
   CARET participants who were smokers at the beginning of the trial and
   who have quit during the study. Twenty-two percent of those who smoked
   at the beginning of the trial have quit.
 
   Greenwald continued, "For all Americans who wish to reduce their risk
   of lung and other cancers, a low-fat diet with plenty of fruits,
   vegetables, and grains is the choice to make. These studies show
   nothing to suggest that smokers or nonsmokers might benefit from beta
   carotene supplements."
 
   Hennekens concurred, noting that "taken together, the results of
   CARET, ATBC, and the Physicians' Health Study clearly tell us that
   beta-carotene supplementation is not a magic bullet -- it can neither
   substitute for a good diet nor compensate for a bad one."
 
   NCI Director Richard Klausner, M.D., praised the work of the
   researchers and participants of CARET and the Physicians' Health
   Study, as well as applauding the process of science. "Medicine and
   public health must be based, whenever possible, on evidence. These
   trials discussed today provide that essential evidence... While the
   results are disappointing, the research process, I believe, is
   working."
 
   CARET Background and Study Design
 
   The study is being conducted in six areas of the United States with a
   principal investigator at each site and Omenn coordinating the trial.
   The six investigators and cities participating in CARET are: Gary E.
   Goodman, M.D., Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash.;
   Barbara G. Valanis, Dr.P.H., Kaiser Center for Health Research,
   Portland, Ore.; James P. Keogh, M.D., University of Maryland at
   Baltimore, Baltimore, Md.; John R. Balmes, M.D., University of
   California-San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.; Frank Meyskens, Jr.,
   M.D., University of California-Irvine, Irvine, Calif.; Mark R. Cullen,
   M.D., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.
 
   The study is comprised of two groups: 14,254 current and former
   smokers with a long history of smoking and 4,060 asbestos-exposed
   individuals. The total number of participants is 18,314.
 
   Recruited in Seattle, Portland, and Irvine were 14,254 men and women
   ages 50 to 69 who are current smokers or are smokers who had quit
   within six years of enrolling in the study. Smokers and former smokers
   must have had a smoking history of at least 20 pack years (one pack
   per day for 20 years or two packs for 10 years, etc). These
   participants are 56 percent male (7,965) and 44 percent female (6,289)
   and had an average of 50 pack years of smoking. About 34 percent were
   former smokers when they joined the study. All participants were
   counseled to quit smoking during their visits to the study centers.
   The racial distribution of the participants is 95 percent white, 2
   percent African-American, 1 percent Hispanic, and 2 percent Asian or
   other.
 
   At five of the six centers (Irvine, Calif. excluded), 4,060 men ages
   45 to 69 years who had been exposed to asbestos while at work were
   enrolled in CARET. These participants had to have extensive
   occupational asbestos exposure beginning at least 15 years earlier,
   determined by either a chest X-ray that showed asbestos exposure or
   employment for more than five years in trades that carry a high risk
   of exposure to asbestos: plumbers and pipefitters, steam fitters,
   shipyard boilermakers, nonshipyard boilermakers, shipyard
   electricians, shipscalers, insulators, plasterboard workers, or
   sheetmetal workers. In addition, they had to be either current smokers
   or had to have quit smoking within the last 15 years.
 
   One-half the CARET participants in both groups took a combination of
   beta carotene and vitamin A and one-half took inactive placebos. Beta
   carotene is an antioxidant, a compound that may prevent cancer-causing
   substances from damaging DNA. Epidemiologic studies have linked high
   dietary intake of beta carotene and high serum levels of this
   micronutrient to a reduced risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer.
   Vitamin A was chosen for study because it is known to play a part in
   cell differentiation, a process of "maturing" cells that helps prevent
   them from inappropriate growth, such as the uncontrolled cell growth
   that is seen in cancer. Vitamin A (retinol) and its analogues have
   been shown to be effective in preventing cancers in animals exposed to
   chemicals like those in cigarette smoke. Beta carotene and vitamin A
   were given as a combination under the hypothesis of a potentially
   favorable interaction between the two compounds.
 
   The dose of beta carotene in CARET was 30 mg/day, which is equivalent
   to 50,000 IU of vitamin A or about five medium-sized carrots. Vitamin
   A was given as retinyl palmitate in a dose of 25,000 IU.
 
 
 
***********************************************************************
Darryl Hamson   [log in to unmask]   http://www.dnh.mv.net/users/hamson
  Must reading for an election year:   _Who Will Tell the People: The
       Betrayal of American Democracy_ by William Greider (1991)
***********************************************************************

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July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
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December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
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September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
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October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
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April 1999, Week 3
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March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
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February 1999, Week 2
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January 1999, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
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October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
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September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
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August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
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July 1998, Week 3
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July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5
January 1997, Week 4
January 1997, Week 3
January 1997, Week 2
January 1997, Week 1
December 1996, Week 5
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December 1996, Week 3
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November 1996, Week 3
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October 1996, Week 4
October 1996, Week 3
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October 1996, Week 1
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June 1996, Week 1
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May 1996, Week 4
May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
February 1996, Week 2
February 1996, Week 1
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January 1996, Week 3
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January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 5
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June 1995, Week 4
June 1995, Week 3
June 1995, Week 2
June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 5
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
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February 1995, Week 1
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January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
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December 1994, Week 5
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