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COMMUNET  February 1996, Week 2

COMMUNET February 1996, Week 2

Subject:

Re: your mail

From:

[log in to unmask] (Philip Lauro)

Date:

Thu, 8 Feb 1996 09:05:41 -0500 (EST)

Content-Type:

multipart/mixed

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text/plain (19 lines) , SKILLCEL.RTF (592 lines) , Unknown Name (2 lines)

Hi Bess,
        Here it is, I'll look forward to your comments.
Sincerely,
Phil
>Please send me your  Rich
>Text Formatted abstract for dissemination which outlines the
>basic concepts
>of Skill Cell Theory and Methodology. And thanks for being
>willing to share.
>
>sincerely
>Bess Haile
>Essex Public Library
>Tappahannock, VA 22560
>[log in to unmask]
>
>



{\rtf1\ansi \deff0{\fonttbl{\f0\froman Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss Arial;}}{\colortbl \red0\green0\blue0;}{\stylesheet{\s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 Body Text;}{\s1\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 Body Single;}{\s2\cf0 \lotusoutlinelevel0 \li288 Bullet;}{\s3\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \li576 Bullet 1;}{\s4\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \li720 Number List;}{\s5\cf0\b\i\sb72\sa72\lotusoutlinelevel2 Subhead;}{\s6\f1\fs36\cf0\b\qc\sb144\sa72\lotusoutlinelevel1\keep\keepn Title;}{\s7 \cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 Header;}{\s8\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 Footer;}}\ftnbj \margl1440 \margr1440 \sectd {\header \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par }{\footer Page {\field{\*\fldinst page \\*arabic}}\pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qr {\fs20 } {\fs16 All rights reserved by the Sheraden Community Development Corporation} \par }\pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qc {\b \fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 Skill Cell Theory and} \par {\b \fs72 Methodology} \par {\b\i \fs48 Helping Build Healthy Communities}{\b \fs48 }\par \page {\b \fs72 Table of Contents}{\fs72 } \par {\b \fs72 } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 {\b \fs32 } \par {\b \fs32 Introduction\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 1}{\fs32 } \par {\b \fs32 Community Organizational Integrity\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 2} \par {\b \fs32 An Introduction to Skill Cells\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 4} \par {\b \fs32 Organization of Skill Cells at the Community Level\tab \tab \tab 4} \par {\b \fs32 Organs of Solution - The Community as a Working Organism\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 9} \par {\b \fs32 Diamond Groups - Let's Get Regional\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 11} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qc {\b \fs32 Summary\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 12}{\b } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 {\b \fs32 A Decentralized Community Management System\tab \tab \tab 14}{\fs32 } \par {\b \fs32 Table of Contents\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 15} \par {\b \fs32 Bibliography\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab 30}{\b } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qc \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b Skill Cell Theory and Methodology} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \ql {\b } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 {\b\i Introduction} \par {\b\i } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 \tab The rapid decline of our community environments during the last two decades is painfully illuminated by the emergence of a great number of programs conducted by a multitude of institutions and org anizations, all focused on improving the general state of our communities. This fact is especially true in our urban areas where many of the programs operate continuously in a "crisis management mode". \par \par \tab More recently, the government at all levels, many organizations, and institutions have come to realize the critical issues facing communities can not be solved simply by direct action, rather, the focus has shifted towards assisting communitie s to become self-sufficient through mobilization of community resources which are directed by the residents themselves. Decentralization and re-engineering have become catch words broadly describing empowerment at a grass-roots level. In the corporat e and government sectors this has resulted in the elimination of top-heavy management structures, redundant positions, and the creation of mechanisms for workers to provide critical input. In the public sector, responsibility for a large number of prog rams has shifted from the federal, to the state, on to the city and county levels. Across the nation cities and counties are designing strategies to create community self-sufficiency by grass-roots empowerment. \par \par \tab Communities, unlike other institutions and organizations, do not have an organizational structural integrity to fall back on during organizational efforts. The heterogeneous nature of communities currently defies a definition based on communi ty-wide organizational structures, as the practical definition of a community, in most cases, is simply a geographical location. Individuals and organizations within communities tend to work in relative isolation. Many institutions and organizations re alize this and have added "building collaborations" as an important part of their mission statements, few, if any of these groups have developed a method for defining a community's organizational structure as a function of the total community, focusing instead on encouraging disparate groups within a community to cooperate on one or more issues. \par \par \tab This type of single issue collaboration strategy has traditionally produced limited successes only in highly focused projects, usually in a "crisis management mode", such as drug treatment centers, well baby projects, etc. Because most of th ese programs address very real, albiet, specific problems, but not the complex environmental factors which combine to produce them, the resulting collaborations are neither community-wide or actively community-directed. In essence, collaborations resu lting from the latter type issues can be viewed as a survival tactic necessitated by an existing problem which has gotten out of hand, i.e. the problem defined the community and the project or collaboration is addressing it directly. Once again, the l ack of community organizational structural integrity is the culprit. \par \par {\b\i Community Organizational Structural Integrity}\tab \par \par \tab When we discuss the subject of organizational structural integrity within a community, two major questions must be asked: 1) How do the residents interact internally?; and 2) How does the community engage outside organizations? Both of these questions raise issues involving communication. \par \par \tab Most communities are not organized, they are a loose confederation of organizations and individuals interacting only to stage special events or to solve a specific problem. An outside agency attempting to interact with a community finds it i s only interacting with one, or a few organizations focused on issues in isolation, rather than from a perspective of the community as a whole. Creating a hierarchical organizational structure, which is exclusive rather than inclusive, in a community is doomed to failure because of heterogeneous nature of the community as a whole. \par \par \tab Without organizational structural integrity, the types of communications necessary to address serious issues, let alone prioritize and act upon those issues, is virtually impossible.. Another difficulty is evaluation. Without organizationa l structural integrity: real time evaluation is impossible; evaluations are limited to well-defined projects in isolation without accompanying environmental factor analysis; and the amount of information culled is grossly limited because of data collect ion problems. \par \par \tab The solution to the problem of community organizational structural integrity lies in the development of a well-defined, decentralized, grass-roots driven organizational structure which builds on itself. With such a structure in place, we can then define the community as a whole in terms of its interacting parts, which in turn allows both technical and non-technical communications protocols to be established. This opens previously inaccessible areas to a multitude of evaluation techniques a nd lays the groundwork for forming multiple community collaborations to address regional (and larger) issues in the future. \par \par \tab The creation of "Skill Cells", "Organs of Solution", "Human Resource Maps", "Diamond Groups" and the application of "Skill Cell Methodology" using high-speed communications technology accomplishes these goals and much more. \par \page {\b\i An Introduction to "Skill Cells"} \par {\b\i } \par \tab "Skill Cells" represent the base organizational unit of two different environments, the community and the computer. Both are initially defined at the grass-roots level in communities and build from there. We define skill cells inclusively, i ..e. each community organization and outside agency is an example of an individual skill cell. At the community level, skill cells are defined in two ways: as groups of individuals with common skills or, in the case of existing organizations, common int erests; and as a relational data base construct in an interactive telecommunications environment. \par \par {\b\i Organization of Skill Cells at the Community Level} \par {\b\i } \par {\b\i \tab }The application of skill cell methodology in a community represents the most concise way to generate a community human resource map. Initially, individuals are provided with a survey consisting of open ended questions. The following i s an example of such a survey. \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \ql {\b Are you involved in volunteer community service? } {\b Y } {\b N Please list the community organizations you belong to and if you hold officer or leadership positions in those organizations.} \par \par {\uldb Organization} {\uldb Position} \par _________________________ ______________________ \par _________________________ ______________________ \par _________________________ ______________________ \par _________________________ ______________________ \par {\b _________________________ ______________________} \par \par {\b What skills do you have which you feel would benefit your community?} \par {\b } \par {\b What skills would you like to learn if they were available through your community?} \par {\b } \par {\b What type of community service would you ideally volunteer}{\b for?}\par \page {\b How many hours a week would you be willing to volunteer for community service?} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par {\b }1 \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \ql 2 \par 3 \par 4 \par 5 \par more than five \par \par {\b Do you own or plan to start a business in your community? } {\b Y } {\b N If yes, please describe the type.} \par {\b Do you own or plan to start a business in a place other than your community? } {\b Y } {\b N If yes, please describe}{\b the type.} \par {\b } \par {\b How would describe your field of expertise?} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 {\b } \par Health Care \par Construction / Trades \par Office Work \par Maintenance \par Food Industry \par Repair \par Sales \par Law Enforcement \par Child Care \par Education \par Art \par Legal \par Other (please describe) ______________________________________________ \par \par {\b Does your position require professional certification?} {\b Y } {\b N If yes, please give a brief description of the certification and agency issuing it.} \par {\b } \par {\b Are you a specialist ( for example, an electrician, plumber, infant child care, civil attorney, etc.). } {\b Y } {\b N What type?} \par {\b } \par {\b Briefly describe the tasks which take up more than 50% of your working time.}\par \page \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \ql {\b Name\tab \tab ____________________________________________________\tab \tab } \par {\b } \par {\b Street\tab \tab ____________________________________________________\tab \tab }{\b \tab } \par {\b City\tab \tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b State\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Zip\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Phone #\tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Fax#\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b E-mail \tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b } \par {\b Employer\tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Street\tab \tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b City\tab \tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b State\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Zip\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Phone #\tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b Fax#\tab \tab ________________} \par {\b } \par {\b E-mail\tab \tab ____________________________________________________} \par {\b } \par {\b } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 {\b How do you think this questionnaire}{\b could be improved?}\tab \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 \par \tab The survey separates individuals into gross categories and discovers what they perceive as their strong and weak points. The survey also provides two important structural categories by: 1) pre-defining possible workshop projects; and 2) provi ding gross categories which simplify the communities' task of defining individual skill cells. The surveys are entered into the database as is (redundancies removed when possible), and categorized according to the gross groupings. Individuals comprisi ng each group are contacted and separate meetings defined by the category are scheduled. \par \par \tab The gross categories are considered the initial skill cell constructs and are needed to simplify the process of defining the resident-directed specific community skill cells. When the initial gross categories meet, their first task is to orga nize themselves into specific skill cells, the building blocks of the community-specific decentralized management system. \par \tab \par \tab There are two types of community-specific skill cells: 1) homogeneous cells consisting of one common skill type, i.e. carpentry, child care specialist, etc.; and 2) heterogeneous cells (many existing organizations would fall into this categor y naturally) or "action cells" (e.g. a family care cell may consist of a doctor, substance abuse specialist, child care specialist, etc.). These skill cells are defined by the participants and represent the base units of organization within the communi ties \par \par \tab The community-specific skill cells represent individual categories in the relational contact management data base. Initial short term projects are identified by the survey question "What skills would you like to learn if they were available t hrough your community?", and represent an opportunity for immediate collaborations to form both internally and with outside agencies. The base unit skill cells can either represent formal organizations or simply a categorized contact list which is avai lable on an as-needed basis. \par \par \tab Organizing the community population into encapsulated units allows: any organization or skill cell to call on the assistance of other skill cells when necessary; projects to be defined in terms of collaborations of skill cells; simpler and mo re concisely defined communication between all skill cells; community leaders to have a detailed human resource map; individuals and organizations to enter the system in a defined way without confusion; the illumination of community deficiencies; the ea sy addition of new skill cells; and allows the basic units to build upon themselves. These defined units can now be used to generate an interactive graphics map on a computer and thus lay the foundation for interactive telecommunications protocols whic h can be easily used by anyone. \par \par \tab One particularly useful skill cell which communities should be encouraged to form is the "Administrative Skill Cell". The administrative skill cell acts as the central clearing house for community project coordination, i.e. scheduling, record ing keeping, project tracking, etc. \par \par \tab At this point the community can now be described on a public network (the Internet) concisely. The description takes the form of a community map of existing skill cells with inter- and intra-collaborations, and in turn the projects they descr ibe. General communications environments can be constructed at a community level while specific communications environments are defined by projects (which are viewed in terms of skill cell collaborations). \par \par \tab Initial community skill cell construct formation is assisted by a community's own issue determination and prioritization. The most effective way to accomplish issue determination and prioritization in a community is through the {\b\i Healthy Cities Visioning Process}. Because Visioning uses pictures and stories to help communities visualize issues, priorities, and innately defines community-wide goals, it also lends itself to skill cell methodology. \par \par \tab Pictures created by community residents describing their ideal community provide a powerful feedback mechanism to remind the community of their long and short-term goals and desires. These same pictures can be used as a starting point using i mage maps which can point to particular projects and involved skill cells and so provide a friendly and simple way to access both community-wide and specific communications environments. This method illustrates where the community is going, reminds the community about their objectives, and provides a positive feedback mechanism by using stories and pictures to tell the world of the community's accomplishments. \par \par \tab The human resource map helps communities determine which issues can be immediately engaged, where deficiencies exist ( i.e. if an issue requires certain skills not found on the map, outside agencies can be engaged both to help address the said issue and help eliminate the deficiency). \par \par \tab The initial community skill cell construct lends itself to identification and successful accomplishment of short-term goals and so provides positive reinforcement to the community that it can succeed. This process provides the framework for the next level of organization. \par \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par {\b\i Organs of Solution - The Community as a Working Organism} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 {\b\i } \par {\b\i \tab }The introduction of skill cell methodology into the community creates a decentralized organizational structure reinforcing the worth of each individual participant by providing a grass-roots determined structure based on commonality. T he structure is not hierarchical and can be used to generate very specific surveys both on-line (through the computer) and by traditional methods. The units are encapsulated by definition and thus can be evaluated singly or in terms of their collaborat ions. \par \par \tab Complex projects require a multitude of skills and often the assistance of outside agencies. There are two general types of complex projects: 1) those which address a specific issue which ceases to exist upon completion of the project; and 2 ) those which become a permanent part of the community and must be sustained indefinitely, such as tutoring and mentoring projects. \par \par \tab A complex project is defined by the skill cells which must collaborate to accomplish it. Skill cell collaboration on complex projects is defined in the next level of organization as complex units called "Organs of Solution". \par \par \tab An "Organ of Solution" is defined by the issue or project which necessitated its creation and by the individual skill cells which describe it internally. It also illustrates collaborations concisely. The organ of solution is a unit construc ted of skill cells and thus comprises another communication environment which can be traced back to its origins. Organs of solution add to the community's human resource map by succinctly defining projects in terms of the resources brought to the task at hand, i.e. it describes the working community organism in terms of grass-roots initiatives. It can be graphically illustrated with interactive image maps, and uses existing community information without being redundant. Communications environments for organs of solution provide practical links to outside organizations and also provides communications links between outside organizations in the context of the practical applications of their mission statements. This level of organizational structur e provides the framework for concise evaluation, not only of the projects proper, but of the outside agencies performance in terms of specific applications, individual skill cell evaluations, and deficiency analysis. Furthermore, it provides the mean s for soliciting specific feedback from the grass-roots levels all the way to the organ of solution level inclusively instead of exclusively. More importantly these evaluations can be done in real time and continuously. \par \par \tab Permanent organs of solution can be redefined in the community as a new skill cells falling into the category of a "working group" while maintaining identity at the higher level as an organ of solution for future use in "Diamond Groups" to b e described later. The computer constructs used to define these units evolve, i.e. changes at any level are reflected at each higher level. The construct allows us to monitor and trace changes (community evolution) to their source by observing at w hat point the changes enter the system. Changes at the lowest level, i.e. specific community skill cells are automatically reflected through the whole environment. This being the case, we can trace contributions made down to the individual and thus rei nforce the notion that each person is important and can make a difference. This is a very powerful psychological concept which not only encourages, but actively compels every community resident to get involved irrespective of their status. More impor tantly, it puts the resources of the complete system at the disposal of everyone in the system in a defined manner, i.e. the wheel never has to be recreated in our big picture because all existing material is available. For example, someone interested in building a youth center is immediately provided with all the material the system has to offer on the subject, to include contacts. If they decide to proceed they are given room in the existing communications environment; access to all parties involv ed in similar projects; critical feedback on their program design; and information to help with all funding aspects; etc. If an individual introduces a novel idea, a structure is in place to both evaluate the idea (objectively) and help put it into pr actice with the accompanying creation of a new organ of solution and communications environment. \par \par \tab This preceding paragraph describes a process which can take place at any level and also be used to expand and modify existing organs of solution and skill cells. The status of the Human Resource Map can be used to view the evolution of the com munity as a whole in as much or little detail as desired. The map can be entered at any point and information retrieved in any form, i.e. extremely sophisticated research information is made accessible to community residents without requiring any fo rmal education. Furthermore, information is segregated in a defined manner thus making it completely available and useful for all parties. The use of end-user defined communications environments makes information transfer, in all its forms, simple and effective, thus eliminating the need and confusion of multiple physical meetings. This aspect is important because it simplifys project planning processes and provides an inclusive environment by removing scheduling and geographic barriers. \par \par \tab At this point we can view and describe the community organism as a whole. We can scrutinize individual projects and complex collaborations, all within the context of the total community environment. We can illuminate deficiencies and correct them, set up bartering systems, reach out to specific community sectors, highlight the information through the use of stories and pictures as well as making more complex information structures available, provide dynamic communications links at every lev el and between all participants, provide a means for evaluation, allow entrance into the system at any level with feedback and help, and provide a structure for creating more complex units called "Diamond Groups". \par \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par {\b\i Diamond Groups - Let's Get Regional} \par {\b\i } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 \tab Once a community has the organizational structural integrity provided by using skill cell methodology and has evolved into a working organism through the creation of organs of solution, it can inte ract with other community organisms in many interesting ways. When organs of solution are brought together into a single unit, community-specific skill cells comprising the individual organs of solution merge with a defined purpose in place creating a super unit of organization called a "Diamond Group". Diamond groups are defined in terms of their merged skill cell constructs and the external agencies (agency skill cells), and represent a well-defined progression. The diamond groups bring: past suc cesses at many local levels; experience with collaboration; familiarity with the agency skill cells they work with; a pre-defined mission statement and set of goals; a pre-defined communications environment ( a construct representing the merger of all t he individual communication environments of the diamond group participants); human resource and project maps of the communities involved; and the immediate creation of a regional map. Diamond groups represent the physical presence of desires and motiva tions originating at the grass-roots level. \par \par \tab Diamond groups are skill cells capable of interacting directly with institutions and organizations which affect and create public policy. Their communications environment reaches from individuals upwards to a global scale. They are capable o f organizing regional projects or interacting directly with government. Diamond groups can be specific in their missions (addressing issues of hunger), or more general (researching public policies or creating political action teams. Diamond groups w ork with policies affecting issues which communities have in common. They address needs which cannot be solved by single communities alone. \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par {\b\i Summary} \par {\b\i } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 {\b\i \tab }When we talk about organization, we cannot separate the physical community and communications issues. Telecommunications are the most powerful way to solve communications problems. It is im portant that each individual, in every community, realizes his or her worth and feels compelled to participate in making the community healthier. To change public policy or to create a successful project requires detailed evaluations, information trac king, and concise communications between all participants at all levels. Only then can we provide proof of the relative worth of suggestions, whatever their origin. \par \tab Using advanced telecommunications technology to assist in these efforts requires the creation of well-defined protocols. Applying skill cell methodology to communities requires the use of technological and non-technological applications. How ever, to track, record, evaluate, advertise community successes, and create increasingly complex structures without losing site of the grass-roots origins of said structures absolutely requires the use of advanced telecommunications technologies. \par \par \tab Skill cells represent a physical, community-defined organizational structure and a method for concise organization of massive amounts of information on a computer. The user-defined communications protocols make this information available in a variety of forms for practical use. Graphics provide snapshots of community evolution at any point in time and more importantly provide all residents with a way to access and use a complex interactive communications environment for projects designed to lead to healthier community environments. These communications environments provide outside agencies with the means to communicate with each other and the communities in absolute context of their involvement with said communities. Most importantly, sk ill cell methodology begins with the belief that every individual has something important to contribute to the community. Now, using current telecommunications technologies, we can provide a forum for their pictures to be seen and their stories to be to ld, backed up with hard evidence which can not be denied or ignored. For the first time, we can have a true "{\b PICTURE" } of the big picture and give those who are natural leaders in our communities the opportunity to make an even more meaningful imp act.\par \page \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qc \sl360 {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 Building Healthy Communities} \par {\fs48 A Decentralized Commumity-Directed} \par {\fs48 Management Model} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \qc \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\fs48 } \par {\b \fs48 } \par {\b \fs48 } \par {\b \fs48 } \par {\b \fs48 } \par {\b \fs48 Table of Contents} \par {\b \fs48 } \par {\b } \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par \par \par \par {\b Introduction ..................................................................................................}{\b .....}\tab 16 \par {\b Institutional and Community Overview..........................................................}{\b ...}\tab 19 \par {\b Why A Model.....................................................................................................}{\b ..}\tab 20 \par {\b Soultions: }{\b\i A Two Part Community Model............................................................}\tab 21 \par {\b Organization I:} {\b\i Administration............................................................................}\tab 23 \par {\b Organization II:}{\b\i Council......................................................................................}\tab 24 \par {\b Interactions of Organizations I and II.............................................................}{\b ...\tab }24 \par {\b Organization III:} {\b\i Bridge......................................................................................\tab }26 \par {\b Organization IV:} {\b\i Youth Activities........................................................................\tab }28 \par {\b Summary..............................................................................................................\tab }30 \par {\b Bibliorgaphy....................................................................................................}{\b .....\tab }31 \par \par \page \pard\plain {\b\i Introduction} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 \tab The Healthy Pittsburgh/Allegheny County (HP/AC) Healthy Cities Internet and Kid Visions projects use computer technology, the Internet, high speed communications, and community-specific organizatio ns and leaders to create and implement a model for improving community health and assisting with the ends described by the Federal act Goals 2000. \par \tab The model focuses on building family and community values through an educational process that builds self-esteem and positive community identity while reducing tensions caused by racial, economic, and demographic pressures. While the model ca n be applied to any community, in a community's hands it becomes a tool for concise identification of community specific goals, a method for defining community-specific indices, and a conduit for community data which can be quantitatively and qualitativ ely analyzed and thus is suitable for regard during policy and fiscal management planning by local and regional legislators. The model also gives community leaders the tools to organize, track, and evaluate complex, multi-year projects, thus increasin g their probability of success. Lastly, it encourages local schools and businesses to partner with communities in mutually beneficial activities. \par \par \tab Specifically, the model provides: \par \par \tab \tab broad-based educational materials about issues relating to civic responsibility for \tab \tab \tab adults and youths; \par \tab \tab a way to increase understanding about the legislative processes affecting \tab \tab \tab \tab communities; \par \tab \tab a forum for community leaders to maintain inter- and intra-community dialogs; \par \tab \tab inter-generational discussion groups independent of geography, age, race, \tab \tab \tab \tab economic status, religion or political affiliation; \par \tab \tab an information archive to assist communities with activities, project funding \tab \tab \tab information, and health issues; \par \tab \tab a process for actively integrating youth into meaningful community activities \tab \tab \tab which are consistent with general outcome-based education models and the \tab \tab \tab Strategic Implementation Plan for Restructuring (November , 1994) initiated in \tab \tab \tab the Pittsburgh School District; \par \tab \tab a means to develop community specific-indices, quantitatively evaluate \tab \tab \tab \tab community success in terms of general community health, and concisely track \tab \tab \tab human \tab resources across a large volunteer base; and \par \tab \tab a way to succinctly identify, segment, and begin implementing activities to meet \tab \tab \tab community-specific goals through application of a general model, and \par \tab \tab the ability for participants to showcase and share their achievements through the \tab \tab \tab use of stories and pictures. \par \par \tab The model also provides evaluation methods for: \par \par \tab \tab community organizations and leaders; \par \tab \tab educators; \par \tab \tab business leaders; \par \tab \tab government; and \tab \par \tab \tab universities. \par \par \tab \par \tab \par \page \pard\plain \sl360 {\b\i Institutional Overview} \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 \tab Most successful businesses and political entities use a top-down model for the decision making process, have hierarchical organizational structures, employ full-time specialists who consult with ma nagement, and are focused by detailed business plans with integral evaluation methods. Established protocols exist for communication and information processing, as does a human resource database. A corporate "identity" often provides homogeneity of pu rpose, name recognition and is the basis for building pride and self-esteem by association which, in turn, builds loyalty and increases productivity. \par \par {\b\i Community Overview} \par \tab In contrast, communities are exceedingly diverse in terms of individuals and organizations. Even in a relatively small community, the diversity of residents' skills and abilities are resources of enormous potential. However, organizing these resources into a coherent working force, motivating them, coordinating with outside agencies, and working to define and achieve community goals are daunting tasks, given that most communities rely almost entirely on volunteers rather than a full-time, paid management team to run day to day operations and oversee activities. A structure enabling community leaders to organize and communicate with a large number of part-time volunteers is not usually in place. Outside consulting expertise exists for communities, but is often overlooked or not used to its fullest capacity. Some of the major reasons for this are ignorance of an agencies' existence and/or scope of services, and not knowing how to use the services offered. \par Creating a viable and healthy community environment by empowering residents is further complicated by the diverse schedules and attitudes of this potential volunteer force, and by cultural, economical, inter-generational, and gender misunderstan dings. Most communities are segmented along either well-defined racial, political, or religious lines or by less obvious indicators such as family ties, organizational ties, length of time in the community, etc. \par \tab Most communities lack any form of centralized organizational structure and rely instead on various local organizations to make decisions about the community in general. Activity in the community is self-empowered, often on the part of a smal l, well defined segment of the population comprising a handful of community organizations. The leaders of these organizations are usually well known and exercise substantial influence over their constituents and, more importantly, belong to more than o ne organization. However, information flow within individual community organizations tends towards the tedious and information flow between organizations (let alone multiple outside agencies) is almost nonexistent. \par \tab Many of these organizations either lack coherent business plans altogether or the plans are narrowly focused, making them unsuitable to address broad-based community needs. Project goals and tasks to achieve those goals are often poorly defi ned and are verbal rather than written. Functional and consistent activity evaluation processes are rare, and therefore informed decisions about communities are difficult for community leaders and public policy makers alike. \tab These communication a nd organizational problems make it impossible for communities to consider implementing complex long-term projects requiring coordination between many individuals, organizations, and outside agencies. In consequence, the size and complexity of community -based activities is often limited to quick solutions rather than projects which address the core causes of problems. These issues likewise make regional collaborations between communities nearly impossible and dependent more on geography than similar ity. Also, the legislative process often confuses and demoralizes communities instead of providing a clarity of purpose and a clear path toward a secure and safe future. \par \par {\b\i Why a model?} \par \tab Addressing the stumbling blocks to effective community empowerment (individual heterogeneity of purpose and of bias, lack of central organization, lack of communication and collaboration, absence of business plans, evaluation systems, and narr ow focus in communities) is vital. More and more initiatives are calling upon communities to address needs identified by local governments but, for various reasons, beyond local government's scope of action. The trend toward decentralization is appar ent at all levels of government, which is increasingly turning to communities to assist with problems ranging from crime to litter. It is unfortunate that most communities are ill-equipped to respond in meaningful or timely ways. To enable a population to engage in complex and successful community-based activities requires a system designed for an environment fundamentally different then that found within larger institutions. \par \par {\b\i Solutions: A Two-Part Community Model} \par \tab Part I of the solution requires the creation of a communications and information network for a variety of stakeholders: residents; community leaders; community organizations; local government; schools; businesses; and outside organizations. T he network addresses two of the most important stumbling blocks facing communities. \par \tab First, it provides a coherent and sustained information access and dissemination system. With easy access to such a system, stakeholders can quickly inform one another about issues and projects affecting the community, enter into continuos dia logs, and gain access to information, support, and guidance. Local activities can receive more exposure to outside individuals and organizations who in turn can provide the critical advice often needed for successful project creation, expansion, contin uation, and inclusion into the public policy-making decision process. Furthermore, access to such a system to helps community residents become aware of and learn the fundamentals of the available and emerging information and communications technologies which are playing an increasingly important role in our nation. \par \tab Second, it provides a concise evaluation protocol. Both community organizations' and individuals' interests must be discovered, human skills mapped, and finally, projects designed to best take advantage of these interests and skills. The sy stem provides for the collection of concise community-specific data which can be used in these organizational efforts and to identify natural areas for collaboration between organizations, outside agencies, and eventually regional partnerships. The eval uation components, being well-defined and community-specific, will be statistically relevant for the precise analysis of both human factors and particular activities within specific organizations and communities in general. The results of this analysi s will be of value to stakeholders and policy-makers alike. \par \tab \par \tab Elements of the network: \par \par \tab \tab it is easy to use \par \tab \tab it increases the community leaders' efficiency and prestige; \par \tab \tab it provides a means to keep all constituents informed; \par \tab \tab it allows easy dissemination of information about the organizations and their \tab \tab \tab activities to outside organizations and the community in general; \par \tab \tab it includes a project tracker; \par \tab \tab it includes a relational database for human resources, community specific and \tab \tab \tab general indices, and activities; \par \tab \tab it has a fiscal management component; \par \tab \tab it provides a way to standardize memberships' input; and \par \tab \tab is consistent across all organizations; and \par \tab \tab it has well-defined, community-specific evaluation components. \par \par \tab Part II of the solution involves implementing a community-wide organizational framework, requiring the formation or reorganization of several community organizations. Four such organizations, aligned in the framework and taught to use the c ommunications and information network, form an interactive environment which will serve the community in general, perform the specific tasks needed for maintenance and service, and provide an information source which is consistent across multiple organ izations. Reorganizing and relying on existing groups increases cost-effectiveness, reduces duplication of effort, and speeds implementation. Furthermore, by linking and servicing organizations already involved in community improvement activities, th e advantages of the new organizational framework in furthering the goals of their own organizations become clear to the community leaders with whom the bridges of collaboration must be built. Successful implementation will strengthen a sense of communi ty identity, involvement, and activity. \par \par Elements of the Framework \par \tab I.\tab an administrative organization to handle technology, technical writing, record \tab \tab \tab keeping, research, and analysis; \par \tab II.\tab an organization for non-electronic dissemination of information of interest to the\tab \tab \tab general community; \par \tab III.\tab an organization which addresses an issue (or relatively few issues) of \tab \tab \tab \tab interest to the whole community; and \par \tab IV. \tab a youth centered organization. \par \par {\b\i Organization I: Administration } \par \tab The administrative organization is a not-for-profit corporation which provides flow through accounts for community-based organizations, collaborations, and projects as an objective third party. It also provides community leaders and organizati ons with grant writing and technical research assistance, outside agency coordination, and the administration of the advanced hardware and software systems required by the communications network. Also provided for are consistent data collection and anal ysis, and\tab cross-analysis between many organizations (eventually between communities). \par \par Organization I provides the means to: \par \tab \tab monitor and organize complex collaborations; \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab file report forms required by funding agencies;\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab build a community wide fiscal management system without threatening the \tab \tab \tab autonomy of individual organizations; \par \tab \tab design targeted surveys; \par \tab \tab define community-specific indices; \par \tab \tab format data to make it palatable for inclusion in professional journals, use by \tab \tab \tab policy makers, and for research in various institutions; and \par \tab \tab maintain a local and global electronic communications information dissemination \tab \tab \tab network; and \par \tab \tab organize and maintain a human resources database \par \par {\b\i The Human Resources Map} \par \tab Organization I creates a and maintains a human resource information database and makes it available both locally and regionally. It is built from the bottom-up, and the design is dictated by community needs and residents' skills. The informat ion is stored in a consistent manner suitable for quantitative and qualitative analysis. In addition to written information, the database contains contact information for the individuals, groups, and organizations which have the applicable practical ex perience desired by local individuals, organizations, and communities. Details about activities resulting from peer to peer contacts are added periodically. When outside agencies are involved, the peer-to-peer network bolsters the agencies' images with other community-based organizations, reduces redundancy, supplies a strong starting point for a given activity (i.e. which agency(s) are the best to contact for a particular situation), and increases the human resource database. These steps provide the groundwork for the formation of larger regional partnerships in the future. \par \tab The human resource map is also used to track and organize a volunteer work force according to ability, ( e.g. carpentry, painting, working with kids, writing, computers, art, etc.). \par When Organization II identifies individuals with specific interests and skills, Organization I enters them into the database. As more volunteers are identified, they can be grouped by interest and skills into "skill cells". Organization II (or ot her community or sponsoring organizations) can then call upon these skill cells to help implement and complete large, complex community projects. \par \tab As the skill cells are routinely called into service, they will begin coalescing into functional organizations or guilds serving the general community. Organization I relieves them of the mundane duties associated with general management and frees them to assist with community projects and to begin training other individuals (such as disadvantaged youths) in disciplines which not only benefit the community, but is a practical application of outcome-based-education. Through them local sch ools can be productively streamlined into the community in a manner wholly consistent with their curriculums and stated missions. \par \par {\b\i Organization II: Council} \par \tab Organization II takes the form of a town or community council, with open membership and regular executive and public meetings. All community-based organizations (and outside agencies) have at least one representative attending regular, open meetings, where they can report to the community on their activities and give individuals the opportunity to interact with them directly. It is the forum for open discussion and information dissemination between residents, local government, community l eaders, and other institutions involved with the community, and is a convergence point for people active in the community. In addition, a publicly circulated agenda attracts individuals with specific interests. Once identified, individuals' specific interests and skills are logged into a database by the administrative organization \par \tab The council sponsors activities which promote civic pride and participation, such as: \par \tab \tab parades; \par \tab \tab contests (yard of the month, best decorated on holidays, etc.); \par \tab \tab community clean-ups; \par \tab \tab community festivals; \par \tab \tab political debates; and \par \tab \tab sponsors speakers to address specific topics of community concern. \par \par {\b\i Interaction of Organizations }{\b\i I and II: } \par \tab Organization II provides community groups with a platform for public dissemination of information, is a focal point for community events, and identifies residents with specific skills to offer. Organization I keeps track of these community gr oups and their events, information, and maintains the cross-referenced relational database and contact management system which tracks the individuals composing the skill cells. When an organization(s) decides on a project, Organization I can produce skill cells of volunteers. This type of organizational structure creates an environment which breaks down detrimental community barriers and replaces them with positive collaborations in a non-threatening manner. \tab \par \tab \par \tab Collaborations are encouraged by interactions of community-based organizations with skill cells from the database kept by the administrative organization. For example, a community organization wants to sponsor a play about the history of the community, videotape it, and sell the tapes for a fundraiser. The following organizations and cells might be involved: \par \par \tab \tab art, to design the sets; \par \tab \tab carpentry, to build the sets; \par \tab \tab senior citizens, for historical perspective; \par \tab \tab youths and schools, to participate as actors and as apprentices to different skill \tab \tab \tab cells; \par \tab \tab writing, to prepare a script; \par \tab \tab administration, to raise funding and organize the project; \par \tab \tab computers, so various writers can work on the script and create a record; \par \tab \tab government, parks and recreation division to prepare site; \par \tab \tab local businesses, to provide refreshments and sponsorship through advertising on \tab \tab \tab the Internet and in the community newsletter; \par \tab \tab organization II, community public relations and advertising; \par \tab \tab etc. \par \par {\b\i Organization III: Bridge} \par \tab Organization III is a bridging unit which focuses on one widely accepted activity or issue with relevance across all existing community segments. The bridging group creates activities which all residents can participate in without making larg e time commitments, implements them on a community-wide scale, and is flexible enough to allow each area in the community to create its own system of handling the activity(s). Most importantly, the organization must show successful progress and all pa rticipants must feel they played a vital role, be it large or small. Lastly, the organization provides the means to publish a community newsletter and distribute it to the majority of residents. A written newsletter which stimulates common interests , provides a comfortable way to begin acclimating residents to the idea of a community wide information system. \par \tab One of the most powerful types of groups which can act as a basis for organization III is a crime watch because: \par \par \tab \tab it has application in all communities; \par \tab \tab local law enforcement agencies will support and help form it; \par \tab \tab it naturally integrates schools, businesses, residents, local government, youths, \tab \tab \tab and all residents in a common, positive cause; \par \tab \tab it increases awareness and focuses on problem causes as well as solutions; \par \tab \tab it is not time-intensive for most residents; \par \tab \tab it encourages residents to talk with and get to know each other; \par \tab \tab it is organized at the block level via Block Captains and thus empowers \tab \tab \tab \tab the most people with the least effort; \par \tab \tab crime watch concepts are easily understood and implemented (light-up nights, \tab \tab \tab keep an eye out on your street for strange people and activities, use 911, get to \tab \tab \tab know the kids\tab on your street and your neighbo rs, etc.); \par \tab \tab it produces positive results (reduces crime) which builds community pride; \par \tab \tab it is a highly visible activity (i.e., Crime Watch signs on every street); \par \tab \tab it provides topics of interest which bring a diversified cross-section of residents \tab \tab \tab together for meetings; and \par \tab \tab provides a system for dissemination of a community wide newsletter (the Block \tab \tab \tab Captains deliver it on their respective blocks). \par \par \tab Furthermore, from crime watches precipitate other worthwhile activities which help build organization I's human resource and activity information bases. For example, block parent programs, creation of youth activities (to give kids an alternat ive to hanging out in the streets), school-community activities, etc. Seniors, being the most vulnerable in unsafe communities, have a vested interest in crime watch projects and can provide many volunteers. It encourages direct involvement between yo uths (youth crime is a local, as well as a national, crisis) and seniors, builds on the process of inter-generational understanding, and opens the door to outside institutions dedicated to serving similar interests (e.g. Generations Together, AARP, et c.). The collaborations between Organization III and outside agencies on well-defined, community-based activities strengthens community ties, involves people in their neighborhood, provides a natural distribution system for local news, and teaches the c ommunity how to work with outside organizations.\par \page \par \tab {\b\i Organization IV : Youth Activities} \par \tab Each community has a youth center or some type of youth organization. Because student busing is a fact in most urban areas, cross-communication between community-based youth organizations and inter-community partnerships between them can be accomplished through the school systems. Organization IV is dedicated to serving and teaching youths by: \par \par \tab \tab providing youth activities for recreation; \par \tab \tab providing activities which promote education; \par \tab \tab coordinating with schools and curriculums; \par \tab \tab encouraging formation of youth organizations; \par \tab \tab moderating youth organizations; \tab \tab \par \tab \tab providing the forum for youths to provide positive input into their\tab \tab \tab \tab \tab respective communities and keeping them informed about issues \tab \tab \tab \tab \tab particularly relevant to them; \par \tab \tab teaching civic responsibility and so builds a foundation for creating future \tab \tab \tab \tab community leaders whom have a thorough understanding of their respective \tab \tab \tab communities (also encourages them to stay rather then flee); and \par \tab \tab building youths' self-esteem through identity with their respective communities \tab \tab \tab where they play a major role in making it a healthy and nice place to be. \par \tab \tab \par \tab The identification of youth issues both at the regional level and community-specific level will be encouraged by Kid Visions. The Kid Visions Club is community independent because recruitment for it will happen in the schools instead of the community. Representatives from community youth organizations work with youths from communities without youth organizations. These interactions encourage the youth-directed formation of youth organizations in communities without them under the follow ing positive conditions: \par \tab \tab \par \tab \tab youth-directed implementation of the programs; \par \tab \tab implementation of new programs involves peer to peer interactions; \par \tab \tab activities are adult moderated; \par \tab \tab provides a positive forum for adult-youth interactions; \par \tab \tab the use of schools for Kid Visions encourages participation; \par \tab \tab projects can be coordinated with curriculums; \par \tab \tab gives educators greater insight into the communities where their institutions are \tab \tab \tab located; \par \tab \tab provides a way for government to interact with youths; \par \tab \tab creates positive role models and identifies existing ones; \par \tab \tab encourages cross-cultural understanding at early ages; \par \tab \tab provides a structured environment for outside agency interaction; and \par \tab \tab helps identify youth problems from the youths' perspective and thus increases the \tab \tab \tab probability of creating successful youth-directed solutions. \tab \par \par \page {\b\i Summary \tab } \par \tab Implementation of organizations I, II, II, and IV and their interplay provide a complete model for: \par \tab \par \tab \tab receiving community input from all community segments; \par \tab \tab providing a method for keeping precise data on human resources and activities; \tab \tab \tab encouraging the formation of "skill cells" which aide in breaking down \tab \tab \tab \tab detrimental community barriers; \par \tab \tab providing a concise evaluation methods for community-based activities; \tab \par \tab \tab providing a grass-roots' organized, generally applicable, decentralized \tab \tab \tab \tab administrative model which evolves to be community specific; \tab \par \tab \tab using high technology; \par \tab \tab providing three levels of information dissemination; \par \tab \tab reducing tensions caused by race, social-economic factors, gender, etc. \par \tab \tab providing the means for forming positive \tab \tab \tab \tab \par \tab \tab community-school-business-government-outside organization collaborations in a \tab \tab \tab community-centered, resident-directed context; and \par \tab \tab creating community-specific indices palatable for inclusion in policy making \tab \tab \tab discussions, research, and internal evaluation by community leaders. \par \par \tab \tab \par \tab \par \par \par \par \par \par \par \tab \tab \tab \par \tab \par {\b\i Bibliography} \par 1. Albers, Eric C.; Paolini, Nancy. {\b The dual face of empowerment: a model for cooperative resource building. }Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 1993; 20(4): 99-109. \par 2. Arnstein S. {\b Eight Rungs on the Ladder of Citizen Participation}. Chan; Passet, editors. Citizen Participation: A Casebook in Democracy. : New Jersey COmmunity Action Training Institute; 1970. \par 3. Biklen, D. P. {\b Community Organizing: Theory and Practice.} Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, inc.; 1983. \par 4. Butterfoss, F. D.; Goodman R.M.; Wandersman, A. {\b Community Coalitions for Prevention and Health Promotion.} Health Education Research. 1993; 8(3): 315-330. \par 5. Byalin K; Harawitz G. {\b State Government at the Grassroots: A Community Relations Approach to Mental Health Program Development.} Community Mental Health Journal. 1988; 24: 196. \par 6. Chavis, David M.; Florin, Paul; Felix, Michael R. J. {\b Nurturing Grassroots Initiatives for community development: the role of enabling systems. }In: Mizrahi, Terry; Morrison, John D., editots. Community Organization and Social Administration. Binghamtom, NY: Haworth Press, Inc.; 1993: 41-68. \par 7. Evers A et al., ed.{\b Healthy Public Policy at the Local Level.} Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1989. \par 8. Florin, P.; Mitchell, R.; Stevenson J. {\b Identifying Training and Technical Assistance Needs in Community Coalitions: A Developmental Approach.} Health Education Research. 1993; 8(3): 417-432. \par 9. Flynn, Beverly. Healthy Cities: {\b A Model of Community Change.} Community Health. 1992; 15(1): 13-23. \par 10. Francisco, V. T.; Paine, A. L.; Fawcett, S. {\b B. A Methodology for Monitoring and Evaluating Commuity Health Coalitions. }Health Education Research. 1993; 8(3): 403-416. \par 11. Halper, Robert. {\b Neighborhood-Based Initiative to Address Poverty: Lessons from Experience. }Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. 1993; 20(4): 111-135. \par 12. Hancock T.; Duhl L.{\b The Healthy City: Promoting Health in the Urban Context.} Copenhagen: FADL; 1986. \par 13. Hancock, T.; Duhl, L. {\b Promoting Health in the Urban Context: }WHO Healthy Cities Papers, No. 1. Copenhagen: FADL; 1988. \par 14. Hancock, Trevor.{\b The Evolution, Impact and Significance of the Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities Movement.} Journal of Public Health Policy. 1993 Mar: 5-18. \par 15. Kickbusch, I. {\b Good Planets are Hard to Find}: WHO Healthy Cities Papers, No. 5). Copenhagen: FADL; 1989. \par 16. Kickbusch, I. {\b Healthy Cities: a Working Project and a Growing Movement.} Health Promotion. 1989; 4(2): 77-82. \par 17. Kretzman JP; McKnight JL.{\b Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Guide Toward Mobilizing a Communities Assets.} Evanstown, Illinois: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research Neighborhood Innovations Network; 1993. \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 18. LaLonde, M. {\b A New Perspective in the Health of Canadians. }Canada: Ministry of Supply and Services; 1974. \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \sl360 19. McKeown, T. {\b The Role of Medicine - Dream, Mirage or Nemesis.} London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust; 1976. \par 20. Milio N. {\b Promoting Health through Public Policy.} Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 1981. \par Perlman J. Grassroots Empowerment and Government Response. Social Policy. 1979; September/October. \par 21. Presented at the Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association. Berry JM; Portney KE; Thompson K. {\b In Search of the Link Between Citizen Participation and Policy Responsiveness in Five American Cities: }Results from the National Citi zen Participation Development Project.; 1988 Nov; Atlanta, Georgia. \par 22. Rothman J.; Tropman JE. {\b Models of Community Organization and Macro Practice Perspectives: their Mixing and Phasing. }Cox FM; Erlich JL; Rothman J; Tropman JE, editors. Strategies of Community Organization. 4th edition ed. Itasca, IL: F.E. P eacock Publishers, Inc.; 1987. \par 23. Rothman, J. {\b Three models of community organization practice, their mixing and phasing. }In: Cox, F. M.; Erlich, J. L.; Rithmant, J.; Tropman, J. E., editors. Strategies of Community Organization. 4th ed. Itasca, IL: Peacock; 1987. \par 24. Staples, L. {\b "Can't ya hear me knocking?": An organizing model. }In: Cox, F. M.; Erlich, J. L.; Rithmant, J.; Tropman, J. E., editors. Strategies of Community Organization. 4th ed. Itasca, IL: Peacock; 1987. \par 25. Tsouros, A. D. {\b Equity and the Healthy Cities Project. }{\b Health Promotion. }1989; 4(2): 83-85. \par 26. Tsouros, A. ed. {\b WHO Healthy Cities Project: A Project Becomes a Movement (review of progress 1987 to 1990). }Copenhagen: WHO'FADL; 1990. \par 27. World Health Organization. {\b A Guide to to Assessing Healthy Cities: WHO Healthy Cities Papers, No. }3. Copenhagen: FADL; 1988. \par 28. World Health Organization. {\b Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. }Copenhagen: FADL Publishers; 1986. \par 29. World Health Organization. {\b Twenty Steps for Developing a Healthy Cities Project. }Geneva: WHO Europe; 1992.\tab \par \pard\plain \s0\cf0\lotusoutlinelevel0 \par}

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May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 5
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 6
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1
January 1997, Week 5
January 1997, Week 4
January 1997, Week 3
January 1997, Week 2
January 1997, Week 1
December 1996, Week 4
December 1996, Week 3
December 1996, Week 2
December 1996, Week 1
November 1996, Week 5
November 1996, Week 4
November 1996, Week 3
November 1996, Week 2
November 1996, Week 1
October 1996, Week 5
October 1996, Week 4
October 1996, Week 3
October 1996, Week 2
October 1996, Week 1
September 1996, Week 5
September 1996, Week 4
September 1996, Week 3
September 1996, Week 2
September 1996, Week 1
August 1996, Week 5
August 1996, Week 4
August 1996, Week 3
August 1996, Week 2
August 1996, Week 1
July 1996, Week 5
July 1996, Week 4
July 1996, Week 3
July 1996, Week 2
July 1996, Week 1
June 1996, Week 5
June 1996, Week 4
June 1996, Week 3
June 1996, Week 2
June 1996, Week 1
May 1996, Week 5
May 1996, Week 4
May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 6
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
February 1996, Week 2
February 1996, Week 1
January 1996, Week 5
January 1996, Week 4
January 1996, Week 3
January 1996, Week 2
January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 6
December 1995, Week 5
December 1995, Week 4
December 1995, Week 3
December 1995, Week 2
December 1995, Week 1
November 1995, Week 5
November 1995, Week 4
November 1995, Week 3
November 1995, Week 2
November 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week 5
October 1995, Week 4
October 1995, Week 3
October 1995, Week 2
October 1995, Week 1
October 1995, Week -15
September 1995, Week 5
September 1995, Week 4
September 1995, Week 3
September 1995, Week 2
September 1995, Week 1
August 1995, Week 5
August 1995, Week 4
August 1995, Week 3
August 1995, Week 2
August 1995, Week 1
July 1995, Week 5
July 1995, Week 4
July 1995, Week 3
July 1995, Week 2
July 1995, Week 1
June 1995, Week 5
June 1995, Week 4
June 1995, Week 3
June 1995, Week 2
June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
January 1995, Week 2
January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
December 1994, Week 4
December 1994, Week 3
December 1994, Week 2
December 1994, Week 1
November 1994, Week 5
November 1994, Week 4
November 1994, Week 3
November 1994, Week 2
November 1994, Week 1
October 1994, Week 5
October 1994, Week 4
October 1994, Week 3
October 1994, Week 2
October 1994, Week 1
September 1994, Week 5
September 1994, Week 4
September 1994, Week 3
September 1994, Week 2
September 1994, Week 1
August 1994, Week 5
August 1994, Week 4
August 1994, Week 3
August 1994, Week 2
August 1994, Week 1
July 1994, Week 5
July 1994, Week 4
July 1994, Week 3
July 1994, Week 2
July 1994, Week 1
June 1994, Week 5
June 1994, Week 4
June 1994, Week 3
June 1994, Week 2
June 1994, Week 1
May 1994, Week 5
May 1994, Week 4
May 1994, Week 3
May 1994, Week 2
May 1994, Week 1
April 1994, Week 5
April 1994, Week 4
April 1994, Week 3
April 1994, Week 2
April 1994, Week 1
March 1994, Week 5
March 1994, Week 4
March 1994, Week 3
March 1994, Week 2
March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994, Week 2
January 1994, Week 1
December 1993, Week 5
December 1993, Week 4
December 1993, Week 3
December 1993, Week 2
December 1993, Week 1
November 1993, Week 5
November 1993, Week 4
November 1993, Week 3
November 1993, Week 2
November 1993, Week 1
October 1993, Week 5
October 1993, Week 4
October 1993, Week 3
October 1993, Week 2
October 1993, Week 1
September 1993, Week 5
September 1993, Week 4
September 1993, Week 3
September 1993, Week 2
September 1993, Week 1
August 1993, Week 5
August 1993, Week 4
August 1993, Week 3
August 1993, Week 2
August 1993, Week 1
July 1993, Week 5
July 1993, Week 4
July 1993, Week 3
July 1993, Week 2
July 1993, Week 1
June 1993, Week 5
June 1993, Week 4
June 1993, Week 3
June 1993, Week 2
June 1993, Week 1
May 1993, Week 5
May 1993, Week 4
May 1993, Week 3
May 1993, Week 2
May 1993, Week 1
April 1993, Week 5
April 1993, Week 4
April 1993, Week 3
April 1993, Week 2
April 1993, Week 1
March 1993, Week 5
March 1993, Week 4
March 1993
February 1993

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