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COMMUNET  April 1997, Week 3

COMMUNET April 1997, Week 3

Subject:

A perspective on real vs virtual experience[NETFUTURE->CITS->]

From:

[log in to unmask] (Curtiss Priest)

Date:

Sat, 19 Apr 1997 09:27:04 PST

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (251 lines)

*** Child, Teacher, World: Three Elements of Education (227 lines)

>From Steve Talbott <[log in to unmask]>

(The following article consists of the introductory sections to a paper
published in the March, 1997 *Research Bulletin* of the Waldorf Education
Research Institute.  Further information is given at the end of the
article.  I begin in this piece with an anecdote lifted from my book,
*The
Future Does Not Compute*; the rest of the essay is new.)

                           How To Meet a Snake

A video or CD-ROM brings to the classroom almost promiscuously rich
vignettes from nature -- images and sounds that would otherwise remain
unavailable to students.  If the curriculum calls for nature studies, it
seems just niggling and petty to suggest that anything is missing from
the
remarkable video footage available today.  What more intimate and
revelatory window onto nature could there possibly be?

But now listen to a true story:

   Yesterday my eleven-year old son and I were hiking in a remote wood.
   He was leading.  He spotted [a] four-foot rattlesnake in the trail
   about six feet in front of us.  We watched it for quite some time
   before going around it.  When we were on the way home, he commented
   that this was the best day of his life.  He was justifiably proud of
   the fact that he had been paying attention and had thus averted an
   accident, and that he had been able to observe this powerful,
   beautiful, and sinister snake.

Barry Angell, the father, then asked exactly the right question:  "I
wonder how many armchair nature-watchers have seen these dangerous snakes
on the tube and said `this is the best day of my life.'"  And he
concluded:  "Better one rattlesnake in the trail than a whole menagerie
of
gorillas, lions, and elephants on the screen" (Talbott, 1995: 160).

Virtually everyone, upon hearing this story, recognizes intuitively the
dramatic difference for the child between the snake on the trail and a
snake on the screen.  It is a difference quite obviously containing
profound implications for learning.  Getting a clean hold on the
difference, however, is not easy.

I would like to offer a few simple reflections upon the story.


Representational Images Are Abstractions
----------------------------------------

First, it is often claimed that, whereas the printed word is an
abstraction from experience -- objective and indirect -- the visual image
is concrete, subjective, and immediate.  In an extremely important sense
this is false.  Whatever we may think about the two-dimensional,
decorative surface as such, something further needs saying about the
representational image:  *relative to what is represented*, it is
abstract
in the extreme -- reduced, selective, mostly emptied of meaning.  To the
degree we substitute such images for the world they represent, we move
with our consciousness down the same road of abstraction along which we
were already traveling with the printed word -- or, at least, down a
parallel track.

Angell's son, in navigating the CD-ROM, would not be at risk of spraining
a toe against the exposed roots in the trail.  He would not find the tree
trunks rough and creviced; but rather smooth as glass.  The musty smell
of
moss and pregnant decay would not greet him.  That fullness of being
which
led the ancients to an experience of nature ensouled -- of dryads and
naiads, gnomes and elves -- and against which our Renaissance forbears
shielded themselves by beginning to purge their sense experience, their
language, and their images of all interior qualities -- this fullness
would not be there for the little boy.  The slithery snake consciousness
that looked out through those baleful, unblinking eyes on the trail do not
look out through the illuminated pixels on his screen.

It is, in short, the difference between Nature and a picture.  After
immersing ourselves so fully in a reality of pictures and training
ourselves to see the world as we see a picture, it is not surprising that
a particularly striking anecdote should be required to remind us of the
difference between the two.  But difference there is.  On the trail the
boy met something of his personal destiny -- a destiny that might have
turned out very differently had he not seen the snake as soon as he did.
If education is about anything at all, it is about helping us to meet,
understand, embrace, and enlarge  our destinies.  This requires more than
the visual and textual abstractions of an electronic global village; it
requires a world.


Teacher-mediated Education
--------------------------

The second thing I want to say about our opening story is that it points
to the importance of a living and present teacher.  Imagine that the
boy's
father had begun tormenting the snake, and that together they had thrown
rocks at it, finally leaving it killed or injured.  We can be quite sure
that the boy would not have celebrated the best day of his life.  In
fact,
assuming that all natural feeling had not yet been deadened within him,
we
can guess that he would have felt distinctly out of sorts by the end of
the day.

But that, of course, is not what happened.  The father clearly felt
wonder
at the snake's presence, admiration for its beauty, grace, and power, and
a receptive curiosity about its nature.  Without this context, the boy's
experience could not have been what it was.  What counted was not only
that he met a snake on the trail, but that he found something of the
snake's meaning in his father's responses.  The boy learned about the
snake by seeing its image, not upon a screen, but reflected in a living
teacher.

To learn, a child must find an inner connection to the subject at hand.
This is not the same thing as experiencing a "cool" sensation or a
powerful emotional jolt.  Screen images, as long as they are continually
pushed toward the new and unexpected, readily produce such jolts.  But
the
pleasure of mere unexpectedness is not the same thing as an inner
connection.  It is more like a drug that calls for a steadily increasing
dose.  On the other hand, a fellow human being with whom the child already
shares an inner landscape *can* help the child spin the threads of
meaningful connection to the surrounding world.

So there are two things in the educational picture we've been sketching,
beside the boy himself:  the world, and a teacher.  Interestingly, there
is a modest but growing body of research about the influences that make
people choose careers as environmentalists, naturalists, ecologists, and
so on -- careers suggesting a concern for the natural world.  Louise
Chawla of Kentucky State University, having recently reviewed this
literature, reports a remarkable consistency regarding two of the
dominant
influences:  wild places directly experienced (usually at a young age),
and adult mentors (Chawla, forthcoming; see also Sobel, 1995).

That is hardly a counter-intuitive finding.  Yet it does raise serious
questions about today's powerful drive toward technology-mediated
education.  Are we proceeding with our eyes wide open?


All Education Is about Our Humanity
-----------------------------------

When we think about the teachers who most decisively influenced us, what
we remember is above all the teachers themselves, not some striking piece
of information they conveyed.  We saw in them what it meant to be a human
being facing certain aspects of the world.

It is backward to say that we must develop young minds so that they can
master particular subject matters -- although nearly everyone who *talks*
about developing human capacities yields to this utilitarian story in the
end.  Rather, we need particular subject matters so that we can learn yet
further, from our teachers and from our own experiences, what it means to
be human.

The informational content of our learning is almost never as important as
the intensity and qualitative vividness with which we work over this
content as we bring it to life within us, or as the degree to which we
exercise and extend our capacities in doing so.

It is remarkable how forgetful of ourselves we have become.  Messrs.
Clinton and Gore -- supported by high-tech corporations and far too many
educators -- drill into us that we must train children for twenty-first-
century jobs.  But that gets it backward.  Our real task is to raise
mature individuals who will be able to decide what sorts of jobs are
worth
creating and having in the twenty-first century.


Content Versus Capacity
-----------------------

Before continuing, I need to address an apparent contradiction.  On the
one hand I've said that real content -- the *world* rather than various
abstractions -- must be the foundation for education.  But, on the other
hand, I've claimed that inner activity and the development of capacities
-- not the imbibing of content -- is what really counts.

But, as you will have recognized, there is no contradiction.  The content
mentioned here *is* essential -- precisely because it provides, first, an
attraction and then the resistance against which the student can exercise
his capacities.  Nor is the attraction a mere matter of entertainment.
What attracts us rightly to the world is the fact that we meet ourselves
and we meet real destinies there.  That meeting is the condition for our
development, educational or otherwise.

Yes, I can meet *something* of my destiny in front of a video screen.
Computers, too, are part of the world.  But what they give us, beyond
their own existence as objects, is a drastically reduced, abstract
version
of the rest of the world.  If I develop repetitive stress injury (RSI)
while trekking through the Sierras on CD-ROM, we should remember that I
got the RSI, not from the rigors of a mountain path, and not from a snake
bite, but from a mouse while sitting in front of a video screen.  The two
surrounds are as different as their consequences.

.. . . . [Following is from the conclusion of the paper.]


Smile When You Take That Photograph
-----------------------------------

Some peoples traditionally have resisted being photographed, fearing that
the mechanical reduction of themselves to an image poses a danger to
their
souls.  It is a quaint thought for most of us.  But, having trained
ourselves for several hundred years to ignore the qualities of things --
that is, to ignore precisely what would tell us about the differences
between reality and image, and the significance of those differences --
perhaps we are not in a very good position to ridicule the folk whose
nature is to note the differences and worry about them.

In any case, it has been the point of this paper to suggest that we might
profitably spend some time worrying about what becomes of a snake when it
is "captured" and projected upon a screen.

             *   *   *   *   *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

The remainder of the paper (not presented here) considers the relation
between quantitative and qualitative educational research.  The full text
is available online
(http://www.ora.com/people/staff/stevet/papers/snake.html). You can order
the *Research Bulletin* (which has several other articles and reviews
relating to computers and education) by sending $4 to Waldorf Education
Research Institute, Sunbridge College, 260 Hungry Hollow Rd, Spring
Valley
NY 10977, and asking for the March, 1977 issue.

Bibliography

Chawla, L. (forthcoming).  "Significant Life Experiences Revisited: A
Review of Research on Sources of Environmental Sensitivity."  *Journal of
Environmental Education*.

Sobel, D. (1995).  "Beyond Ecophobia: Reclaiming the Heart in Nature
Education."  *Orion*, vol. 14, no. 4 (autumn).  Also see NF #33), which
contains excerpts from Sobel's article.

Talbott, S. (1995).  *The Future Does Not Compute: Transcending the
Machines in Our Midst*.  Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly & Associates.


	   W. Curtiss Priest, Director, CITS
      Center for Information, Technology & Society
         466 Pleasant St., Melrose, MA  02176
       Voice: 617-662-4044  [log in to unmask]
 Fax: 617-662-6882 WWW: http://www.eff.org/pub/Groups/CITS

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