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ISOGEOCHEM  September 1998

ISOGEOCHEM September 1998


Re: position avialable: lab manager/technician


pier de groot <[log in to unmask]>


Stable Isotope Geochemistry <[log in to unmask]>


Tue, 29 Sep 1998 16:55:01 +0200





text/plain (594 lines) Parts/Attachments

multipart/appledouble (594 lines) , application/applefile (594 lines) , Contents 10.9.98 (1 lines) , Contents.RTF (1 lines)

Dear Sir,

I just was reading your advertisement for a laboratory manager on the
isogeochem list.
I am searching for another position. My wife and me have decided we
want to leave South Africa (we live in a suburb of Johannesburg)
because of safety and financial reasons. Safety, with a violent
criminality rather increasing than decreasing, is a worry of my wife
and for our children. The financial situation is becoming very bad too
- with a strongly eroding (low) salary by high inflation rates and a
murdering interest rate (23.25%) on our mortgage of the house.

Presently I am working at Wits University in the position of Research
Officer (although I am rather senior for that position) at the
Economical Geology Research Unit at the Department of Geology.
I am in charge of the stable isotope laboratory, and extending that
laboratory. Actually there exists a working and calibrated sulfur
isotope line for sulfides and a laser-O isotope extraction line (BrF5
reagent) is near completion after my own design and aftewr advise by
Zach Sharp (Univ. of New Mexico) and Christian France-Lanord (CRPG,
Nancy, France).
I have a wide experience in analytical techniques considering O and H
isotopes on silicates and on water, C and O isotopes on carbonates, C
isotopes on organic compounds and graphite, S isotopes on sulfides,
sulfates and native sulfur.

I am wondering if I can be a candidate for the vacant position in
question. My worry is that I am very senior (I am born in 1950!) for
the description as you gave in your advertisement, searching a masters
or postgraduate (with all the problems of continuation) candidate. If
in any case you might be interested in a person like me, this will
come down to a salary question. Can you please give me any particulars
on that matter, if realistic in my case of course.

To provide you with some information about my person I will include a
CV and the present research I am working on.

Curriculum vitae - Pier Anne de Groot

Work address:   University of the Witwatersrand
        Department of Geology
        Economic Geology Research Unit (EGRU)
        Private Bag 3
        2050 Johannesburg
        South Africa
        Tel.  +27 - 011 - 7162564
        FAX +27 - 011 - 3391697

Date of birth:          19 October 1950

Sex:    Male

Civil status:   Married 21 August 1987, with two children

Nationality:    Dutch

Language proficiency:   English, German, French.


1963 - 1970     High School
        (Hogere Burger School, Natural Sciences - HBS-B)
        Gemeentelijk Lyceum Eindhoven

1972 - 1976     B.Sc., G3 (geology) and G5 (geochemistry)
        Geological Institute
        University of Amsterdam

1976 - 1985     M.Sc., Geology
        Geological Institute
        University of Amsterdam

1985 - 1993     Ph.D., 22 February 1993
        University of Utrecht

Military Service:       14 months (9-70/1-72), following Dutch

        Work experience:
Two weeks in the Belgian Ardennes mapping a series of simply folded
and faulted limestones and sandstones.
Four weeks in the Sub-Betic zone of Spain near Jumilla, province of
Murcia, mapping an area of sedimentary rocks, including a gypsum
Seven summers fieldwork in Bergslagen, Sweden, involving detailed
mapping of a >10 km thick sequence of 1.9 - 1.8 Ga Proterozoic felsic
supracrustals cut by subvolcanic felsic intrusives and diabase dykes
and sills, and an extensive geochemical programme investigating the
alteration chemistry of rocks in a group of hydrothermal conduit
zones, related to a submarine hydrothermal rift environment.
Four summers fieldwork in Bergslagen, Sweden, involving sampling
projects for geochemical investigations of hydrothermally altered
rocks and related mineralizations (skarn and volcano-exhalative).
Several shorter visits were made.

analytical experience;
Stable isotope analysis:
During a period of 16 months, I have worked at the "Centre de
Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques" (CRPG),
Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France, under supervision of Dr. S.M.F.
Sheppard, with the following stable isotope extraction lines:
Carbonate line: carbonate minerals (e.g. calcite, dolomite, siderite,
ankerite) are reacted in special glass tubes under high vacuum
conditions with 100% phosphoric acid to extract CO2 gas from the
minerals. The CO2 gas is collected in sample tubes on a high vacuum
line by liquid nitrogen freezing techniques, and is measured in a mass
spectrometer to obtain carbon and oxygen isotopic values.

Hydrogen line: silicate minerals, waters, and fluid inclusions were
analysed on this high vacuum line to obtain deuterium-hydrogen isotope
Minerals, contained in molybdenum foil and placed in platinum
crucibles, are heated up to 1500°C in special glass tubes by an
induction furnace,  liberating all crystal waters, which are collected
in a liquid nitrogen freezing trap,
Capillary glass tubes, containing waters, are broken and waters are
collected in a liquid nitrogen trap,
Rock fragments with fluid inclusion bearing minerals are placed in a
stainless steel or copper tube which is soldered on one side and
closed by a stopcock at the other side. After careful degassing, the
tube containing the rock fragments is crushed under a hydraulic press
to liberate the inclusion fluids, which are collected in a liquid
nitrogen trap.
The waters in the liquid nitrogen trap are passed through an 800°C hot
uranium metal bearing furnace to reduce the water to H2 gas, which is
collected in a sample tube by means of a "Toepler-pump" or by freezing
with liquid nitrogen on carbon grains in the sample tube. The H2 gas
is measured in a mass spectrometer to obtain D/H ratios.

Silicate - Oxygen isotope line: This line contains a metal part
(stainless  steel and nickel) and a glass part, and is operated under
high vacuum conditions. Silicate minerals are reacted overnight with
BrF5 in nickel tubes at 500° to 650°C, depending on the structure and
composition of the mineral. O2 gas is extracted and passed over a
carbon rod heated to 670°C to form CO2 gas which is collected in
sample tubes by freezing techniques and measured in a mass
spectrometer to obtain oxygen (and carbon) isotope values. Complete
extraction of oxygen from the silicates is required to avoid isotopic

Since March 1988 I have been operating the silicate oxygen-isotope
extraction line at the Geochemical Department of the Institute of
Earth Sciences at the University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
After major repairs the extraction line is now producing good results;
an oxygen isotope value of 9.42” for the international standard NBS-28
and a reproducibility of ± 0.1” is obtained.
A two year assistantship was awarded to me, starting September 1989,
at the Geochemical Division, Institute of Earth Sciences, University
of Utrecht.
From November 1990 a silicate hydrogen isotope extraction line has
been constructed and is operative. This extraction line deviates from
the one described above. Heating of the minerals occurs in
quartz-glass tubes above 1300°C by means of a resistance furnace. All
tubes and other parts leading from the extraction furnace to the
uranium furnace are heated to about 90°C to avoid absorption of the
extracted water on the glass walls. H2 gas is collected by absorption
on pure C-grains in special collection tubes during cooling with
liquid nitrogen of these tubes. The gas is measured on a mass
spectrometer after expansion of the H2 gas in the collection tube at
room temperature. A hydrogen isotope value of -66.1 ± 0.5” is measured
on the NBS-30 biotite standard.

November 1991 a short visit was made to the CRPG,
Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France, to be informed about the technique and
possibilities of a laser-probe analytic line. A CO2-laser probe was
demonstrated, operating by combusting silicate samples in a BrF5
atmosphere. Complete yield of silicate-O2 is attained. The O2 gas is
converted into CO2-gas leading it over a heated carbon rod in a
classical high-vacuum glass line. A CO2-laser beam is invisible for
the human eye, which is why a He-Ne-laser, producing a visible (and
harmless) beam, is used to locate the desired spot to be analysed.

A laser O-isotope line for silicate analysis, after own design based
on the technique as described by Zachary Sharp, is near completion at
the stable isotope laboratory of the Department of Geology, University
of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..

Sulphur isotopic line: A sulphur analytic line is constructed at the
University of Utrecht. Sulphides (and native sulphur), depending on
their sulphur content, are weighed and brought into a quartz glass
tube together with 100 mg V2O5, which represents two times the
stoichiometric amount of O2 necessary to convert the total sample
sulphur into SO2. The quartz tube containing the sample-V2O5 mixture
was degassed at 100°C (native sulphur at room temperature) on a vacuum
line for at least 4 hours. Capsules were produced by melting and
sealing the evacuated glass tube. The capsule is heated in a furnace
at 1000°C (± 10°C) for 2 minutes and quickly cooled to room
temperature in a cold water bath to avoid formation of SO3 instead of
SO2. The SO2-bearing glass capsules are broken in a high-vacuum glass
line and passed over aceton-ice and penthane-ice cold traps to remove
water and CO2 respectively. The glass line is heated just over 100°C
to avoid SO2 adsorption on the walls. I measured the SO2 gasses on a
VG 602 D mass spectrometer at the Centre des Recherches
Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (CRPG), Nancy, France, to obtain the
d34S value of the sulphides (native sulphur). Precision generally is
better than ± 0.1” for those samples analysed twice or more. A CdS
standard from Göttingen University representing a d34S value of 11.0”
gives consistently a value of 10.8” (± 0.1”) with this procedure. The
mass spectrometer is calibrated periodically against the five
standards of Monster and Rees (1975). The measured sulphur isotopic
values are related to CDT (Canyon Diablo Troilite).

During a visit from 20 to 23 November 1995, to the Centre des
Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (CRPG), Nancy, France,  a
technique of sulphur isotope analysis on sulphates was teached to me.
Purpose was to analyse sulphur isotopes on anhydrite (and dehydrated
gypsum: anhydrite) samples for Delta Isotopes.
Samples are weighed and mixed with amorphous silica and brought in a
quartz-glass tube which is closed at one side. The tube is mounted on
a sulphur isotope extraction line and degassed first. SO2 is produced
by thermal reaction in the tube by torch-heating of the sample
mixture. The sample mixture melts during the heating and finally
produces a glass when cooled down. Care must be taken to avoid
trapping of SO2 gas in the glass.

A sulphur isotope line at the Department of Geology, University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, is repaired, redesigned and
calibrated against international standards (NBS123, IAEA-S-1/2/3). It
operates on a routine basis after this revision and calibration.

fluid inclusion analysis;
A two months introduction into the technique of fluid inclusion
analysis was given by Prof. J. Touret, Free University, Amsterdam, the
During my stay at the CRPG measurements on fluid inclusions were
carried out under supervision of Dr. C. Ramboz; some of the inclusions
have been analysed for stable isotopes.

nato advanced study institute (asi) meeting;
The NATO-ASI "The Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore-Forming Processes",
held on Januari 7 - 23, 1987, at Salamanca, Spain and followed by a
field excursion through eastern Spain, visiting a.o. the Spanish
pyrite belt and the Hg-mining area of Almadén, was attended. The
organizing committee was formed by: H. Ohmoto (Penn State Univ, USA),
S.M.F. Sheppard (CRPG, Nancy, France), A. Arribas (Univ of Salamanca,
Spain), B. Poty (CREGU, Nancy, France), H.L. Barnes (Penn State Univ,

contract work;
Summer 1983: contract with Sveriges Geologiska AB, Sweden, to work in
a tin exploration project (Älvdalen, Dalarna; project leader: Dr. F.
Ros), and in a tungsten exploration project (Järnboås, W. Bergslagen;
project leader: K.-A. Sandahl).
1991 - 1993: Stable isotope (O, C, H, S) analysis on sulphide - skarn
parageneses in Tertiary polymetallic mineralizations, N. Greece. EC
project MA2M - CT90 - 0015, "Carbonate hosted precious and base metal
mineralization in Greece: Development of new exploration strategies".
Stable isotopes on carbonates (C and O), silicates (O), sulphides (S)
and oil-brine samples (native S, H, O, Sr [by: Dr. T. Shepherd,
British Geological Survey]) were analyses with the purpose of ore
mineral (Au, base metals) exploration. A visit to northern Greece was
made during 26 August - 9 September 1991, with the aim to decide on
targets to be sampled for stable isotope analysis. Project leaders: D.
Constantinides, Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME) -
Athens; N. Arvanitidis, IGME - Thessaloniki; K.L. Ashworth, Euromin
s.r.l., Trieste; J.H. Baker, University of Utrecht.

company work;
At September 27, 1994, a company named "Delta isotopes" was registered
at the Chamber of Commerce in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This company
represented a one-man business, contracting orders for geochemical
analysis - in particular stable isotope analysis and assessment.
Contract work has been done for: Geological Museum, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark; Technical University, Lisbon, Portugal; IGME
(geological survey), Greece; Dutch Geological Survey, Haarlem,
Netherlands; Geochem B.V., Utrecht, Netherlands.

A short visit to the Institute of Geography at the University of
Wales, Swansea was made at 15 - 16 June, 1995, for an interview.
Searched was for a stable isotope geochemist to build a stable isotope
laboratory. We did not arrive at an agreement.

The Department of Geology at the University of Kuwait invited me for a
visit from 9 to 14 December, 1995. This visit included meetings with
the staff geologists and visits to their geochemical laboratories.
During this visit I have presented two lectures of one hour.

research positions;
From 16 September 1996, I am employed as a stable isotope geochemist
by the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, by
the Economic Geology Research Unit as a Reseach Officer. A stable
isotope laboratory is under construction. A sulfur isotope device for
sulfides was repaired, corrected to operate in right order, and
calibrated against international rukles and standards. A laser-oxygen
isotope device for silicates and oxides, operating with BrF5 is
completed and has to be tested.

teaching experience;
At the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, I was involved
in teaching geochemical courses to the honours class.

Research projects:
In addition to ongoing work on hydrothermal systems and related
mineralizations in Bergslagen, and publishing of the results of an EU
project in N Greece, the following additional research and cooperation
projects are running:

€       Amalia Gold: Goudplaats and Botmarus areas [visited: 25 + 26 Nov.,
        Cooperation with Prof. M.J. Viljoen (Wits Geology) and  R. Kiefer
(PhD student): stable isotope [S] analysis of pyrites and
interpretation of gold mineralization. Evt. tool for exploration

€       Blaubank mine, Magalisburg (ancient gold mine):
        Visits: 2 days at early 1998 to have introduction into geology of the
region, on the surface and in the mine. Gold mineralization is
concentrated in shear zones.
        Work done:  pilot samples analysed for geochemistry. Based on this
and field observations: more samples will be collected and analysed
for chemistry (including Au content) and for stable isotopes with the
aim to describe the fluid/rock alteration and gold deposition history
of the mine.
        Cooperation with Prof. M.J. Viljoen (Wits Geology) and Dr. T. Jamison

€       Witwatersrand basin fluid - stable isotope project. The project has
just started.
        There are 2 aims for this project:
1) S isotope analysis on sulfides (pyrites) to estimate ŸO2 and pH of
fluids involved with gold mineralization - combined with estimates for
the same parameters by mineral stability fields based on thermodynamic
calculations, this might define a resticted field for the conditions
of gold transport/ mineralization.
        Started with sample collection and analysis of pyrites for S-isotope
        Planned is S-isotope analysis by ion microprobe on thin sections of
different (intergrown) pyrite generations to determine difference in
isotopic signature of these generations.
        Cooperation between: Dr. P.A. de Groot (EGRU) and Dr. M. Chaussidon
(CRPG-CNRS, Nancy, France; proposed)
        Evt. involvement of Prof. W.U. Reimoldt, with S-isotope analysis on
different pyrite generations of the Kimberley reef.
Project by: Dr. P.A. de Groot (EGRU) and Prof. L.J. Robb (Wits
2) Stable isotope study: analysis of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of
hydrous minerals from the Wits basin to estimate source and history of
the fluids which were involved in transport and deposition of the
Project by: Dr. P.A. de Groot (EGRU) and Dr. G. Stevens (EGRU)

In preparation stage:
€       Copperbelt project on Cu-Co mineralization in this classical world
class district. Emphasis is on the hydrothermal explanation of the
mineralization, in contrast with the syn-sedimentary models proposed
by most geologist before.
        This is at stage of literature study and planning for field
        Cooperation between: Prof. L.J. Robb (Wits Geology), Dr. S. Master
(Wits Geology), Dr. P.A. de Groot (EGRU), Prof. S. Sutton (Colorado
State Univ., USA).

€       Johannesburg dome intrusives:
        Cooperation between Prof. C.R. Anhaeusser (EGRU): mapping of
different intrusives, Dr. M. Poujol (EGRU): dating of intrusions, and
Dr. P.A. de Groot (EGRU): stable isotope geochemistry to characterize
intrusives. Eventual determination of fluid activity after deposition
of the intrusives might be done by combining O and H isotope analysis
on hydrous minerals from the intrusives.

€       Contacts with Dr. J. Honnorez of Univ. of Strasbourg, France, for
starting a cooperative project on thermodynamics of seafloor
alteration mineralogy, with emphasis on the stability of
sericite/muscovite and paragonite. Start of project not yet


Baker, J.H. and De Groot, P.A. 1983 Proterozoic seawater - felsic
volcanics interaction, W. Bergslagen, Sweden. Evidence for high REE
mobility and implications for 1.8 Ga seawater composition. Contrib.
Mineral. Petrol., 82: 119-130.

Jasinski, A., Baker, J.H. and De Groot, P.A. 1985 Thermodynamic
aspects of the Mg chlorite - K feldspar - sericite - kaolinite system:
Applications to the fossil sub-seafloor hydrothermal system at
Hjulsjö, Bergslagen, Sweden. In: The petrology and geochemistry of
1.8-1.9 Ga granitic magmatism and related sub-seafloor hydrothermal
alteration and ore-forming processes, W. Bergslagen, Sweden. PhD
thesis by J.H. Baker. GUA Papers of Geology, Amsterdam, Series 1, Nr.
21: 159-188.

De Groot, P.A., Baker, J.H. and Oen, I.S. 1988 Evidence for gravity
subsidence and granite diapirism in the 1.8-1.9 Ga Proterozoic
successions of W. Bergslagen, Sweden. Geol. Mijnbouw, 67: 19-29.

De Groot, P.A. and Sheppard, S.M.F. 1988 Carbonate rocks from W.
Bergslagen, Central Sweden: Isotopic (C, O, H) evidence for marine
deposition and alteration by hydrothermal processes. Geol. Mijnbouw,
67: 177-188.

De Groot, P.A. 1990 A model for the formation of potassic and sodic
alteration phases during hydrothermal processes: application of
thermodynamic models to natural systems. Geol. Fören. Förhand., 112:

De Groot, P.A. and Baker, J.H. 1992 High element mobility in 1.9 -
1.86 Ga hydrothermal alteration zones, Bergslagen, central Sweden:
Relationships with exhalative Fe-ore mineralizations. Precam.
Research, 54: 109-130.

De Groot, P.A. 1993 Stable isotope (C, O, H), major- and trace element
studies on hydrothermal alteration and related ore mineralization in
the volcano-sedimentary belt of Bergslagen, Sweden.  Geologica
Ultraiectina, 98, University of Utrecht, Faculty of Earth Sciences,
Ph.D. thesis: 181 p.

De Groot, P.A., Arvanitidis, N.D. and Baker, J.H. 1996 Regional
carbon, oxygen and sulphur isotopic values in the Serbo-Macedonian and
Rhodope massifs. Mineral Wealth, 98: 17-23.

De Groot, P.A.  (1997). The uses of stable isotopes in mineral
exploration: An overview. Economic Geology Research Unit,
Johannesburg. Information Circular No. 310: 36 p.

De Groot, P.A. (1997). Water/rock ratio calculations in hydrothermal
systems: A case study from Bergslagen, central Sweden. Economic
Geology Research Unit, Johannesburg. Information Circular No. 314: 21

De Groot, P.A. (submitted to Economic Geology). Stable isotope (O, H)
study at Hjulsjö, western Bergslagen, Sweden; Evidence for early
Proterozoic sea water involvement in the hydrothermal system.

De Groot, P.A. (submitted to Applied Geochemistry). An appraisal of
various methods to estimate water volume in fossil hydrothermal
alteration zones: Case study from West Bergslagen, Sweden.

De Groot, P.A. (in prep.) Deposition mechanisms and environment of
rhytmite deposits: A calculated model. (to be submitted to Geochim.
Cosmochim. Acta).

De Groot, P.A. (in prep.) Review of the use of stable isootpe
techniques in ore exploration. (to be submitted to Eart-Science

De Groot, P.A., Shepherd, T.(?), Arvanitidis, N.D. and Zamanis, G. (in
prep.) Isotopic systematics of Oil brines from the Prinos field near
the island of Thasos, northern Greece. (to be submitted to Applied
 List of Project Reports:

Baker, J.H., Arvanitidis, N.D., Eliopoulos, D. and De Groot, P.A. 1992
Vein type mineralizations, N. Greece: Examples from Pangeon, Palea
Kavala and Symvolon. Progress Report, Fourth Internal Vol., EC/IGME
Project MA2M-CT90-0015, Athens: 9p.

De Groot, P.A. 1993 Stable isotopes. Analytical results and
interpretation - Final Report, EC/IGME Project MA2M-CT90-0015, 22p.

De Groot, P.A. 1993 Sulphur Isotopes. Supplementary report, EC/IGME
Project MA2M-CT90-0015, 12p.

Carbonate hosted precious and base metal mineralization in Greece:
Development of new exploration stratagies. Final Technical Report, EC
Primary Raw Materials Programme, Project MA2M-CT90-0015, 1993, 107p.
Project Coordinator: D.C. Constantinides:
Varti-Mataranga, M., Hellingwerf, R., Koukoulis, Ch., Shepherd, T.,
Naden, J. De Groot, P. and Chatzipanagis, I. 4.2: Regional Carbonate
Studies: 73-80.
Hellingwerf, R., De Groot, P. Arvanitidis, N.D., Tsamantourides, P.,
Veranis, N. and Theodoroudis, A. 4.3: Studies of Specific Areas:
Shepherd, T., Naden, J. and De Groot, P. 4.4: Nestos Basin Brines: 87.

De Groot, P.A. 1997 Report reviewing existence of bauxites and
laterites and related mineralization in Liberia. Written as
participant on the Liberia project by Amalia Gold Comp.: 4p.
 List of Conference Abstracts:
(Abstracts marked with * are presented by P.A. de Groot)

*De Groot, P.A. and Baker, J.H. 1983 A fossil hydrothermal system of
Proterozoic age, Hjulsjö, Sweden: A model with aspects of seawater -
felsic rock interactions and REE implications for Proterozoic
seawater. Terra Cognita, Vol. 3: 167-168.

Baker, J.H. and De Groot, P.A. 1983 Proterozoic submarine exhalative
iron ores from Hjulsjö, leached from felsic volcanics by modified
seawater. Terra Cognita, Vol. 3: 167.

Baker, J.H. and De Groot, P.A. 1984 Hydrothermal leaching of Fe from
felsic volcanics, and subsequent submarine - exhalative deposition to
form an iron horizon near Hjulsjö, W. Bergslagen, Sweden. Medd.
Stockholms Univers. Geol. Inst., Nr. 255: 18.

*De Groot, P.A., Baker, J.H. and Jasinski, A. 1985 The behaviour of
major and trace elements in a fossil hydrothermal system, Hjulsjö,
Bergslagen, C. Sweden. Terra Cognita, Vol. 5: 153.

*De Groot, P.A. 1988 Carbonate C and O stable isotopes of W.
Bergslagen, central Sweden: Evidence for marine deposition of
stratabound carbonates and discrimination possibilities between
different skarn types for prospecting. In: International field
conference on the "Tectonic setting of Proterozoic volcanism and
associated ore deposits", August 15-21, 1988, Sweden/Finland. Abstract
volume for the symposium in Turku, August 18, 1988.

*De Groot, P.A. and Baker, J.H. 1988 Gravity subsidence and diapirism
tectonics in the 1.8-1.9 Ga ensialic belt of W. Bergslagen, central
Sweden. In: Internatinal field conference on the "Tectonic setting of
Proterozoic volcanism and associated ore deposits", August 15-21,
1988, Sweden/Finland. Abstract volume for the symposium in Turku,
August 18, 1988.

*De Groot, P.A. 1989 Prediction of potassic- or sodic-alteration
phases under hydrothermal conditions at 0 - 600°C: Application to
natural systems. Terra Abstracts, Vol. 1: 325-326.

*De Groot, P.A. 1989 A model for the formation of potassic and sodic
alteration phases during hydrothermal processes: Application of
thermodynamic models to natural systems. Abstract to a meeting about
Bergslagen, Central Sweden, organized by GFF/SGU, to be held at
Uppsala, Sweden, May 25th, 1989.

*De Groot, P.A. 1990 Hydrogen and oxygen isotope study on middle
Proterozoic Fe- (Mn)- and W-(Mo-) skarns in W. Bergslagen, Sweden.
Evidence for a low latitude meteoric origin of the skarn-forming
fluids. Abstract; Second symposium on the Baltic Shield, with workshop
on correlation with Laurentia, Lund, Sweden, June 5-7, 1990.

*De Groot, P.A. 1991 Hydrogen and oxygen isotope study on middle
Proterozoic Fe-(Mn)- and W-(Mo)- skarns in W. Bergslagen, Sweden.
Evidence for a low latitude meteoric origin of the skarn-forming
fluids. Terra Abstracts, Vol. 3, Supplem. Prog.: 11.

Baker, J.H., Tarney, J., De Groot, P.A. and Jones, C.E. 1991
Autometasomatic kaolinitization of Tertiary granitoids in Rhodope, N.
Greece and the relationship to ore-forming processes. Terra Abstracts,
Vol. 3: 464.

*De Groot, P.A. 1993 Low 18O Precambrian carbonates related to basins
heated by hydrothermal activity; Implications for Precambrian
paleoclimate. Abstracts suppl. No.1 to Terra nova, Vol. 5: 35.

Baker, J.H., Arvanitides, N.D. Eliopoulos, D., De Groot, P.A. and
Constantinides, D.C. 1993 Shear hosted Au-base metal deposits from
Pangeon, Symvoulon and Palea Kavala, N. Greece. Abstracts suppl. No.1
to Terra nova, Vol. 5: 442.

De Groot, P.A. 1994 About the development of Precambrian crust and the
influence of atmospheric and hydrospheric paleoconditions. Abstract;
IGCP-275 Symposium on Precambrian crustal evolution in the North
Atlantic regions, Nottingham, United Kingdom, September 13-17, 1994.
Abstracts will be published in Terra Abstracts.

Lectures without abstract:

EUG VIII (Spring 1995). Voluntary talk to replace a cancelled talk:
Fluid sources of the 1.9 - 1.86 Ga Hjulsjö hydrothermal zones;
evidence for hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of Early
Proterozoic seawater.

Abstract with poster presentation:

De Groot, P.A. 1997 On the value of water/rock ratio calculations, in:
EUG 9 Terra nova Vol. 9; Abstract Supplement No.1, pp. 547, European
Union of Geosciences, Strasbourg.

Please, also find included attachments (for both MAC or PC format)
about a book on stable isotope analytical techniques I am
editing/preparing actually. I have agreement with Elsevier to publish
the book. Privisional title is: Handbook of stable isotope analytical

I hope to have informed you sufficiently about myself with this
material. I am looking forward for your rerspons on this informal
application for the advertised position.

Best wishes,
Pier de Groot.
Dr. P.A. de Groot
University of the Witwatersrand
Economic Geology Research Unit
Department of Geology
Private Bag 3
2050 Johannesburg
South Africa
Tel.    +27 11 7162564
Fax.    +27 11 3391697
E-mail  <[log in to unmask]>

Visit the combined HOME-PAGE of EGRU-Geology on the Internet:

I am preparing a book on technical aspects of stable isotope analysis at the moment. The aim of this book is to produce a handbook including as many as possible techniques for a large range of stable isotopes (element 1 [H] to element 35 [Br], excluding noble gases and those elements which only have one stable isotope), presented in a section containing diagrams and condensed descriptions + references, a sections with reviewed papers on modern developments in stable isotope analysis and reviews of techniques and a extensive bibliography. Although the book is primarily aimed for geochemists, it certainly will be usefull for scientists from other disciplines too, such as biology, medical science, and environmental science. I like to invite you, if you might have ideas for a subject (if not already covered by someone else - see list below) to contribute to my book, I certainly like to hear that from you. If you know others for a subject not covered yet in the overview as given below, please feel free to propose to me. To give you an idea about the lay-out of the book and other contributors, I include an overview of the book as it looks like at the very moment. I have agreement with Elsevier to publish the book (soft- and hard-bound versions), with a provisional title: "Handbook of stable isotope analitical techniques". To give you an idea about the lay-out of the book and other contributors, I include an overview of the book as it looks like at the very moment. The book I am thinking about has different sections: section with reviewed contributions; Agreed and possible contributions are: =Supriya Chakraborty, Jeffrey Johnston and Mark Thiemens (UCDS, La Jolla, USA), techniques of measuring 18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios in ozone (manuscript received); =Hans Eggenkamp (Reading, England): Cl+Br isotope techniques (agreed to contribute); =Marc Chaussidon (Nancy, France): old/new Cameca ion probe for stable isotope applications: S, O, H, B, Li (agreed to contribute); =Juske Horita and Carol Kendall (Oak Ridge, USA and USGS, USA), a review of water measuring systems (agreed to contribute); =Juske Horita and Carol Kendall (Oak Ridge, USA and USGS, USA): techniques for measuring stable isotopes on saline fluids/brines (agreed to contribute); =Wolfram Meier-Augenstein (Dundee, England) GC and IRMS technology on organic matters and organics related gases (agreed to contribute); =Gray Bebout (USA), N-isotopes in metamorphic rocks (minerals?) (agreed to contribute); =Chen-Feng You (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan), techniques on boron isotope analysis (agreed to contribute); =Lui-Heung Chan (Louisiana State University, USA), review on Li-isotopes: techniques and application (agreed to contribute); =Edward Young (Oxford, England): the physics of laser mineral interactions, the processes attending fluorination of plasmas, issues concerning calibration when using 17O/16O as well as 18O/16O, the complications arising when handling molecular O2 in general, and the use of GC/IRMS for O2 (agreed to contribute); =Steven Cliff and Mark Thiemens (UCSD, USA), review of analytical techniques of 17O, 18O, 15N on N2O (agreed to contribute) =Christophe LŽcuyer (Lyon, France) techniques of O-isotope analysis on fosfates (agreed to contribute); =R. Krishnamurthy and Eliot Atekwana (Michigan, USA), Measurement of the concentration and isotopic ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters (agreed to contribute); =Albert Gilg (MŸnich, Germany), Jean-Pierre Girard (BRGM, Orleans, France), and evt. with Simon Sheppard? (Lyon, France), stable isotope analysis on mud and clay minerals (agreed to contribute); =Bruce Vaughn and Jim White (INSTAAR, Univ. of Colorado, USA), stable isotopic measurements on radiative greenhouse gases -i.e. Water vapor, CO2, methane (agreed to contribute); =Eckhard Faber and Ulrich Berner (Fed. Inst. Geosc. Nat. Res., Hannover, Germany), techniques of measuring stable isotopes on oil - coal - natural gas, and application of the technique in determination of source(s)/ processes involved in the formation of these hydrocarbon matters (agreed to contribute); =Michael Boettcher, Neretin & Schnetger (Bremen/Oldenburg, Germany), separation and sulfur isotopic analysis of sulfur species from marine and brackish systems (water column, sediments) and bacterial cultures (agreed to contribute); =Ding TiPing (Acad. Sci., Beijing, China), review on Si isotopes (agreed to contribute); =Darren Sleep (ITE Merlewood, England) analysis of N-isotopes on nitrate (or other N-compounds) in waters and soil, including a laboratory comparison (agreed to contribute); =Bob Vocke and Bob Kelly (NIST, USA), microsample sulfur isotope analysis with TIMS on aerosol and hydrologic materials (agreed to contribute); =Bruce Taylor (Geol. Surv., Canada) review on techniques of measuring sulfur isotopes (agreed to contribute in principle - negotiate about dead-line settings); =Bruce Taylor (Geol. Surv., Canada) review on fluorination methods for O-isotope analysis on silicates and oxides (agreed to contribute in principle - negotiate about dead-line settings); =Simon Sheppard (Lyon, France), experimental techniques to obtain isotopic fractionations; Evt. I also can contact CM Graham or T Chacko for this (considers to contribute; possible Simon proposes another subject himself); =Roy Krouse (Univ of Galcary, Canada), review of S-isotopic analytical techniques - using CF-(C)-IRMS and laser tools - on organic (environmental) S-containing compounds (considers to contribute); =John Valley (Mich, USA) laser technology or review on different laser systems (proposed, considers to contribute depending on subject); =R. Gonfiantini (Pisa, Italy), techniques of absolute isotope ratio analysis (considers to contribute); =Len Wassenaar (..); techniques of stable isotope analysis on soils- and sedimentary samples [proposed]; =Crayton Yapp or Michael DeNiro?, stable isotope techniques of celluse-tissue material analyses [to be proposed]; =Balthazar Verhagen (Schonland RC, Wits Universite, RSA) stable isotope analytical techniques of groundwater and environmental studies [proposed]; =Al Fahey (NIST, USA), review paper on techniques of measuring stable isotopes of metals, such as Ca, Ti, Mg, Fe (other metals?), on the ion microprobe and evt. other methods (thermal ionization MS; MC-ICP-MS?) [proposed]; =Iain Gilmour (Open University, England), techniques of C-isotope analysis in sediments [proposed]; =Stuart Boyd (Paris, France), laser techniques on N-isotope analysis in different materials (e.g. diamonds) [proposed]; =Alex Halliday (Univ. Michigan, USA), technique of MC-ICP-MS for stable isotope analysis [proposed]; =Sven Scholten (Shell, England): N-isotope technology on sediments/ organic matters - developments and proposal for techniques [proposed]; =K. Heumann?? (Potsdam, Germany), Ca isotope analytical techniques on calcites (and other rock materials?) [to be proposed]; =Jan Meesterburrie ( Free University, Amsterdam), Rob Kreulen (Isochem, NL), Groot (Wits Univ, RSA)???: H2O-CO2 exchange technique with small volumes - a simple and inexpensive solution??? [have to agree about this] - a section handling mass spectrometer calibration and procedures in laboratory reference measurement, addresses where to obtain standards, developments in mass spectrometer technology: classic static MS vs. conflow type MS measurement, procedures in mass spectrometer measuring; =Willi Brand (Finnnigan?, Bremen, Germany) Modern developments in mass spectrometry (agreed in principle to contribute - contents discussed later); =Simon Prosser (Europa Sci., Crewe, England), hydrogen isotope Conflow-IRMS systematics (agreed to contribute); =Manfred Groening (IAEA, Vienna) Calibration of MS and devices for stable isotope analysis, and proper use of standards (agreed in principle to contribute - will discuss contents of contribution soon); =Bob Vocke (NIST, USA) and with Manfred Groening (IAEA, Vienna) review of standards available for stable isotope measurement (agreed to contribute); =Information about the isogeochem list for stable isotope geochemists (Andrea Lini, the list-manager agreed very positively to this idea), and evt. descriptions of devices for stable isotope analysis as provided by commercial companies. =Addresses of IAEA and NIST (+ URL for internet) (addresses for manufaturers is given with the isogeochem list for manufacturers of mass spectrometers and analytical devices) =Finigan (by Jšrn …sselmann) contacted for interest [proposed]?? Here I changed opinion: like to refer to the marvelous list on the Isogeochem web-site for devices as provided by manufactorers for stable isotope analysis or mass spectrometers. Maybe some descriptions for "brand-new" devices can be included? Calibration is far from standardized in the world of laboratories and this is an attempt to give direction into more standardization. Normally this is only obtainable in the specified literature, not all laboratories are subscribed to. It will improve exchange of measured data between different laboratories too. - a section with diagrams and condensed descriptions of stable isotope analytical devices for: O, H, C, S, N, Cl, Br, B, Li, Si, (Cu, Zn, other metals) isotopes and applications for different materials. The form of this section is thought to be a kind of "recipe-book" type. This includes in more detail (this needs very hard a drastic update): = O-C isotopes on carbonates [phoshoric acid digestion technique; laser ablation technique; treatment of fossils for C-O analysis; automates as commercially available] = O-isotopes on silicates [Ni-tube technique + laser technique; discussion on O2>CO2 conversion techniques; BrF5, ClF5, ClF3, F2 fluorination agents] = H-isotopes on silikates and waters [U reduction; Zn grain reduction; Cr metal reduction; Ni-tube diffusion technique; H2 gas exchange technique] = O-isotopes on waters [CO2 exchange technique; nickel reaction tube method; BrF5 fluorination technique; Guanidine-HCl technique] = O-isotopes on fosfates [Bi-phosphate/Ag-phosphate techniques with BrF5 fluorination techniques > evt. included diff methods as given by LŽcuyer] = O- and -H isotopes on fluid inclusion fluids [H on fluids = H isotopes on silicate/water technique; O isotopes - dividing diff. fluid/gas fractions by cryogenic techniques] = O isotopes on organic matters [nickel tube technique; older techniques to be looked up in literature]; = C-isotopes on graphite and organic matters: kerogens, bitumen, oil [fusion with O2; evt. oxidation with Cu2O?; GC-MS technology for st. isot.; stepped heating methods: this clearly needs more work to collect all standard techniques in this area - maybe you can inform me a bit better on this matter?] = S-isotopes on sulfides [Cu2O / V2O5 combustion methods > on-line and off line approaches; laser technology] = S-isotopes on sulfates [Kiba method; combustion with Cu2O/V2O5 and amorf silica, both online/offline methods; combustion with graphite method] = Cl-isotopes [methods of Long et al. and Eggenkamp] = Br-isotopes method [Eggenkamp] = N-isotopes in sediments/organic matters [method Scholten (zie thesis Sven Scholten, 1991, RUU; other methods to be looked up). = N-isotopes in metamorphic minerals [Bebout method?] = N-isotope analysis with laser technique [...] = S, H, O, B, Li isotopes with ion-probe technology [old and new Cameca probes: e.g. M. Chausidon, Nancy, France] = B-isotopes [2 different methods, based on pre-treatment of sample and MS approaches; 1 method for electron microprobe] =Si isotopes [methods to be informed from Ding Tiping, or from his book] =Cu + Zn isotopes (Francis Albarde, Lyon, France). =Li isotopes [need review of this] =Ca, Mg, Fe, Ti, .... isotopes [ion microprobe; other method(s) as thermal ionization MS??] =sample preparation, including physical and chemical methods, and discussion of their effect on the analytical procedure and evt. isotopic fractionation risks. =chemical materials as commonly used in the extraction procedures for stable isotope analysis and their risc, and how to avoid or to reduce the risc. - a bibliography on literature on stable isotope technology and directly connected subjects (including the literature lists of contributions). This is a rather detailed description of the book as I think it should be produced. Contents is not fixed at this stage, but will follow the lines as given above. Rough estimate of pages: For different sections: section 1: >300 pages section 2: >50 p. section 3: >100 p. section 4: >50 p. In total this forms ±500 pages as a rough estimate; I am certain it will grow to larger extent. Basically a length of 20 (printed) pages is given for a paper, unless there are good reasons to have longer contributions - which must be discussed with me first. Short contributions are very welcome, too. The book is a multi-author work in sense of the reviewed sections 1 and 2 (section 2 partly is reviewed too). Section 3 and 4 will be produced by myself (I will consult other stable isotope scientists where I need). Aim of the book is creating a sort of handbook where laboratory workers can look up stable isotope techniques easily, without needing to dig into literature, which not always is obtainable without problem. This also might cause more standardization in analytical techniques and therefore more "similar" data for exchange between laboratories. Another aim is to present modern developments in, and review of the techniques, mostly in the reviewed sections 1 and 2. After reaching an agreement with Elsevier Publishers, a dead-line for handing in manuscripts is set at start of March 1999. Details of format of manuscript etc. will be provided after agreement on writing a contribution to my book. A "delaying" problem might be my almost certain change from Wits University to the University of Kuwait (a financial, job-certainty and "safity" based decission). Things will occur probably the second part of this year, with a 2 months stay in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and I will be available at an "emergengy e-mail address" for that period till I have an e-mail address in Kuwait. I will inform everybody involved with my book in due time with this e-mail address and with a time scheme. I hope to have informed you sufficiently about the lay-out of the book in question. The aim is to have contributions highlighting the modern developments of stable isotope analysis. If you have other ideas, like to cooperate with others on the subject (co-authorship) or like to propose other contributors (with subjects) to this work, I will certainly be gratefull. I look forward to hear from you, eventually with suggestion(s) for contribution or other suggestions, and I hope you are willing to sent me information about your device (or evt. where I can find a publiushed version if existing). I want to include this method with the others in the section with diagrams and descriptions (of course refering to the source, as with all other material). Best wishes, Pier de Groot. ************************************************************** Dr. P.A. de Groot University of the Witwatersrand Economic Geology Research Unit Department of Geology Private Bag 3 2050 Johannesburg South Africa Tel. +27 11 7162564 Fax. +27 11 3391697 E-mail <[log in to unmask]> Visit the combined HOME-PAGE of EGRU-Geology on the Internet: **************************************************************

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