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EJCLASS  April 1999

EJCLASS April 1999

Subject:

Global Futures Bulletin #82

From:

"Institute for Global Futures Research (IGFR)" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Environmental Justice <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 20 Apr 1999 15:21:09 +0000

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text/plain

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text/plain (681 lines)

________________________________________________________
********************************************************
GLOBAL FUTURES BULLETIN  #82
---15 Apr, 1999---                                                    ISSN
1328-5157
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Institute for Global Futures Research (IGFR).
P.O. Box 263E, Earlville, QLD 4870, Australia.
E-mail: <[log in to unmask]>.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
This bulletin is for the use of IGFR members and GFB subscribers
only and is not to be re-posted.
________________________________________________________
********************************************************
*
*
INDEX
.       Cities, energy and nutrients
.       Energy scenarios, biomass and CO2
.       Putting militarism squarely on the agenda
.       Prime drivers of the Kosovo/Serbia crisis
*
*
CITIES, ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS
Folke Gunther [1]

A very interesting discussion on urban development has taken place
in the GFB #79 and #80 by Peter Newman [2], Ted Trainer [3] and
John McLaughlin [4], and in the editorial comments.  In the
discussions, however, some important issues have been overlooked:

I. Energy dependence
Urban structures are not only heavy users of energy, but it can also be
argued that cities are a result of cheap energy availability [5].  The
sustainability of a city is dependent on easily accessible energy.  An
increasing number of studies doubt that energy will remain easily
accessible even in the close future [6].

The energy dependence is not only a function of personal
transportation/urban sprawl, but also an increasing amount of energy
used in the food system.  A low estimate is that the food system
requires ten times the energy in the food, probably more.  The US
food system reached that (in)efficiency around 1980 [7].  Since the
average food energy needed to sustain a person is about 1,000
kWh/an, this means that the food related energy requirements of a
person (10,000 kWh/an) are larger than those of transportation
(3,500 kWh/an) or space heating/cooling (4,000 kWh/yr).  Naturally,
this correspondingly affects the vulnerability to energy availability of
the different systems.  Therefore, urban sprawl and urbanisation will
only take place in a situation characterised by easily accessible
energy.  If a habitation system can be found that would diminish this
energy dependency considerably, it would be much less vulnerable.

II. Nutrient dependency
When people live in a crowded area (conurbation) food cannot be
produced locally for its inhabitants, but must be imported from a wide
area.  Nutrients, of which phosphorus is the scarcest in the support
area, follow the food.  Hence fertilisers must be supplied to the food
growing area, and they are accumulated in the urban area, or lost into
seas or lakes.  To my knowledge, there are no cities that maintain a
circulation of nutrients to the supporting area, but all have a net
import or throughput of nutrients.

This situation has several complications.  First, there is a
support/pollution problem.  The time-horizon for availability of
phosphorus for nutrient production (at current energy prices) is 100 -
150 years.  Secondly, phosphorus (and nitrogen) compounds are
serious water pollutants.  To avoid the pollution problem, an
increasing part of the cities have installed wastewater plants.  If
phosphorus is not let out of the area, it will accumulate there, mainly
as sludge from the plants.  The sludge is deposited in the vicinity,
either on landfills or on local agriculture.  By this, the accumulation
in the area will go on.

However, when an increasing amount of nutrients is accumulated in
the area, the non-point leakage will increase.  After some time, the
total leakage will amount to a substantial part of the import.  The end
result is depletion in one end and pollution in the other.  This is what
I call a HEAP-trap (Hampered Effluent Accumulation Processes) [8].
It is clearly an unsustainable conduct.

Therefore, urban sprawl and urbanisation will only take place in a
situation characterised by easily accessible energy and easily
accessible nutrients, especially phosphorus.  The only way to avoid
this problem is to develop a local food production system that also
can re-use the nutrients.  The less the access to cheap energy and
nutrients, the closer must the loop be.

If long-time survival is the issue, local, mainly self-supporting
communities must replace the large conurbations.  Started soon, the
process (which I call 'ruralisation') need not necessarily be very fast.
*
[1]  Folke Gunther, disserting at Department of Systems Ecology,
NMR, Stockholm University, Sweden (Ecological Adaptation of
Human Settlements).  Lecturer in Division of Human Ecology, Lund
University, Sweden.
URL:http://www.etn.lu.se/~folke_g/folkegsv.htm  (sorry, mostly in
Swedish)  E-mail:  [log in to unmask]
[2] Newman, Peter 'Cities and Smart Growth' Global Futures Bulletin
#79    01 Mar, 1999
[3] Trainer, Ted 'Smart Growth' Global Futures Bulletin #80 15
Mar, 1999
[4] McLaughlin, John Impact of the Net on Urban
Planning/Transport Global Futures Bulletin #80 15  Mar, 1999
[5] A diagram showing the development if cities compared to the
global energy use can be found (in an article in Swedish) at
http://www.etn.lu.se/~folke_g/RURSV2.HTM
[6] http://hubbert.mines.edu/ ; http://dieoff.org/page1.htm ;
Campbell, C. J., 1997. The Coming Oil Crisis. Multi-Science
Publishing Company / Petroconsultants S.A.; Campbell, C. J.  and J.
H. Laherrere, 1998. The End of Cheap Oil. Scientific American, 3:
78-83
[7] Hall, C.A.S., C.J.Cleveland and R.Kaufmann, 1986. Energy and
Resource Quality. Wiley Interscience, New York.
[8] Gunther, F., 1997. Hampered Effluent Accumulation Processes:
Phosphorus Management and Societal Structure. Ecological
Economics, 21,  159-174. Elsevier
*
*
COMMENT
Peter Newman argues that by redesigning cities away from auto
dependence, and by increasing density around public transit, energy
use can be reduced by a factor of 10 or more (GFB #80) [1].

It is fairly likely that energy will become more expensive, particularly
around 2010-2020, but by no means certain.  It depends on many
factors including efforts toward energy conservation and investment
in renewables, as well as unpredictable technological breakthroughs.
However, it would be wise to follow the 'no regrets' precautionary
principle and plan for possible energy scarcity in the future.

If 'ruralisation' implies decentralisation of populations, would this
not likely result in an increase in transport/energy consumption ?

It may be that 'ruralisation' implies the development of dense
communities of a smaller size (eg 100-500,000 people ?) which can
be supported by the immediate hinterland, yet large enough to
support a viable economy.

How difficult and expensive would it be to process sewage and
compost back into fertiliser and return it to growing regions ?  These
costs are currently externalities and may need to be factored into food
prices.  It could make imported foods expensive and prejudice food
exporters in developing economies.
*
[1] Newman, Peter  'Cities that reduce resource use and waste'
Global Futures Bulletin #80  01 Apr 99
*
{18. urban development; 4. energy }
*
*
*
ENERGY SCENARIOS, BIOMASS AND CO2
Many people use biomass in developing countries as a source of fuel -
such as wood and cow dung.  While theoretically, this fuel does not
add to CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, because it is reabsorbed
by the new vegetation, in practice, much of that vegetation is not
being replaced as fast as wood is being collected.  Cooking in this
way also results in serious health problems - respiratory and eye
disease in particular.

Ethanol programs such as in Brazil and Zimbabwe, which substitute
petrol/oil consumption, have been relatively successful but have been
undermined by the falling price of oil, from US$35/barrel in 1982, to
US$15 in 1998.  A carbon tax would no doubt make such programs
more economically feasible.

It is surprising that ethanol is not economically competitive in parts
of Europe where petrol sells for more than US$1 per litre.  It could be
argued that the US, by resisting taxes on oil, is exacerbating the
prospect of a significant oil shock.

Price of petrol (gasoline) for 1997 US$ [1]
Australia       0.50
Canada          0.41
France          1.07
Germany         0.97
India           0.72
Japan           0.81
Netherlands     1.21
Norway          1.28
UK              1.23
US              0.36

It is surprising that the International Energy Agency projects a
growing world consumption for oil to 2020 [2]:

Mtoe/an (Million tonnes of oil equivalent per annum)
1995    3,400
2010    4,450
2020    5,250

However the IEA's World Energy Outlook 1998 also presents new
findings which project conventional oil production to peak during the
period 2010-2020 [3].  The anomaly represents the difference
between projected demand and projected supply.  Depending on how
well other energy sources can make up the supply shortfall, as well as
the achievable magnitude of energy conservation measures, and the
ability to plan now to avoid a supply shortfall, we may see an energy
crisis around 2015-2030.

Current energy consumption estimates  % of total
        Yoda etal(1990)[4]      IEA (1995) [5]  Raskin et al [6]
oil             39.8            40.4            37
coal            27.3            27.1            25
gas             22.6            22.9            19
nuclear           3.7             6               7
hydro             6.8             3               2
renew**           0.04          0.6             11

total           7915 Mtoe       8300 Mtoe       9170 Mtoe

Notes:
Disparity in current estimates highlighting need to treat statistics
tentatively since different studies use different conversion rates from
primary energy to final energy use, amongst other variables.

Disparity in % current renewable energy use - 0.04%, 0.6% and
11% !  Could it be that Raskin et al are including biomass use (wood
fuel and dung) omitted by other data sources ? (justifiable).

Disparity in % current hydro and nuclear energy use.

Energy projections - % of total  Mtoe. [7] IEA; [8],[9] Nitta/Yoda
        2020 [7]                2050 [8]                2100 [9]
oil       38.3          18.2              1.5
coal*     28.7          29.6            28.2
gas       25.2          11.4            neg
nuclear     4.4         24.7            50.4
hydro       2.6         14.2            11.5
renew**     0.8           1.9             8.4

total   13,700 Mtoe     17,280 Mtoe     25,750 Mtoe

Energy projections (continued)- % of total  Mtoe. [10] Raskin et al
GSG.
bu - Business as Usual;   pr - Policy Reform
        2025bu          2025pr          2050bu          2050pr
oil     38              33              36              26
coal    25              20              24              11
gas     20              28              22              36
nuclear   6               4               7             neg
hydro     2               3               2               3
renew**   9               12              9             25

total   16,150 Mtoe     13,350 Mtoe     22,200 Mtoe     14,300

* for [7] includes combustible renewables and waste for OECD.  It
seems inappropriate that 'combustible renewables' (biomass?) is
lumped in with coal !
** renewables, includes geothermal, solar, wind, tide etc

Notes:
The Nitta/Yoda study suggests an energy consumption range of
1997      9,500 Mtoe
2050    12,500 - 23,000 Mtoe
2100    11,300 - 33,000 Mtoe

The Nitta/Yoda study sees an essentially nuclear future (nuclear
fusion).  The massive use of coal conflicts with current CO2 emission
stabilisation goals, although coal gasification technology would emit
less CO2 than straight combustion.

The Nitta/Yoda scenario conflicts with assessments of the nuclear
industry by Flavin et al, noting that after a growth of 700% in the
1970s, 140% in the 1980s, it grew by just 5% in the 1990s.  Currently
at 340GWe world capacity, far less than the 4,500 GWe predicted by
the IAEA predicted in 1974, nuclear energy generates about 17% of
world electricity [11].

Currently there are 429 nuclear reactors in operation worldwide, with
33 under construction, though 14 of these may never be completed
[12].

Energy plant production costs $US/kW installed capacity [13]
nuclear energy  $3,000-$4,000
gas-fired*      $400-$600
wind            $1,000

*new gas-fired combined cycle plants using jet engine technology

The IEA projection suggests a diminishing dependence on nuclear
and hydropower.

CO2 output for fossil fuels [14]
1 Mtoe oil = 2.86 Mt CO2
1 Mtoe gas = 2.29 Mt CO2
1 Mtoe coal = 3.90 Mt CO2

Based on the above, even the most optimistic scenario presented here
(Raskin et al, Policy Reform) results in 28,557 Mt CO2 /an, an
increase of 25% over the current levels of 22,700 Mt CO2 [15] which
are clearly inducing global warming and which are unsustainable.

Yoda et al's low energy consumption scenario of 11,300 Mtoe would
result in 12,400 Mt CO2/an, or possibly lower, using coal gasification
(eg 7,280 Mt CO2/an), which is about equal to the 7,300 Mt CO2/an
recommended by the IPCC in its Second Assessment Report:

IPCC Recommendations Second Assessment Report [16]
                Mt Carbon       Mt CO2
1995            6,000           22,000
2050            4,000           14,667
2100            2,000             7,334

But note, this is Yoda et al's low consumption scenario, and is an
essentially 'nuclear scenario'.
*
[1] International Energy Agency (IEA) 1998
<http://www.iea.org/stats/files/keystats/stats/p_0505.htm>
[2] IEA http://www.iea.org/stats/files/keystats/stats_98.htm
'outlook/by fuel'
[3] IEA  World Energy Outlook 1998  http://www.iea.org/energy.htm
[4] Nitta et al  op cit
[5] IEA op cit  <.../p_0701.htm>
[6] Raskin et al   op cit  p117
[7] IEA  op cit  <.../p_0701.htm>
[8] Nitta Y, Yoda S  Technological Forecasting and Social Change
49, 1995  p184 cited in Global Futures Bulletin #37 'Energy
projections'
01 Mar 1997 - based on conversion 1 Twh = 0.086 Mtoe plus 35%
conversion rate oil-electricity.
[9] Nitta et al   op cit.
[10] Raskin P, Gallopin G, et al 'Bending the Curve Toward Global
Sustainability - Report to the Global Scenario Group' (1998) p117
http://www.gsg.org
[11] Flavin, Christopher; Lenssen, Nicholas 'Nuclear power nears
peak'  News from the Worldwatch Institute, 05 Mar 1999
www.worldwatch.org/alerts/990304.html
[12] Flavin et al  op cit
[13] Flavin et al  op cit
[14] based on IEA data, IEA op cit   <.../p_0701.htm> and
<.../p_0601.htm>
[15] IEA op cit <.../p_0601.htm>
[16] Global Futures Bulletin #3 'Global Warming and Energy'  01 Jan
1996
*
{4. energy}
*
*
*
PUTTING MILITARISM SQUARELY ON THE AGENDA
Felicity Hill, Madelaine Gilchrist [1]

At each and every major UN world conference including:

World Summit for Children, New York, 1990
Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 1992
World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, 1993
International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo,
1994
World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 1995
Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995
Habitat II Summit, Istanbul, 1996

- a clear articulation of the global effect of militarism, military
budgets and military priorities - an essential cross-cutting theme - has
been strategically ignored.  From the Forward Looking Strategies to
the Platform for Action, a deterioration in the language, analysis and
political will to put militarism on the agenda is evident in the debates
and the text from the Women's Conferences.

The upcoming review of the Conference on Women (Beijing +5)
presents an opportunity to correct this.

When only *one third* of current military spending is necessary to
eradicate poverty, hunger and illiteracy as well as other urgent social
and environmental programs [2], the complex issues of peace are
highly relevant.

Militarism, the arms trade, and the permanent war economy that
in the late 90's drains US$780 billion per year from the global
economy, contributes to the normalisation of violence, the cultural
production of gender roles, poverty, and environmental degradation -
clearly affecting every one of the 12 Critical Areas of Concern of the
Platform For Action.

By signing the Platform For Action the signatory governments
committed to -

*       Para 143(a) 'Increase and hasten ...the conversion of military
resources and related industries to development and peaceful
purposes...'

*       Para 143b: 'Undertake to explore new ways of generating new
public and private financial resources....through the appropriate
reduction of excessive military expenditures.'

*       Para 349 '...Governments should reduce...excessive military
expenditures and investments for arms production and acquisition.'

It is interesting that the UN has never sponsored a world conference
on Peace and Disarmament.

UNCED in Rio 1992 marked the recognition of the inextricable link
between environment and development.  It is now time to mark the
inextricable link between environment, development and
disarmament.
*
[1] Madelaine Gilchrist, Canadian Voice of Women for Peace;
Felicity Hill, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
(WILPF)
[2] see Global Futures Bulletin #15  01 July 98 'Military Budget
Versus Sustainable Development'
*
{2. peace and conflict resolution; 34. world summits}
*
*
*
PRIME DRIVERS OF THE KOSOVO/SERBIA CRISIS
The Kosovo/Serbia crisis is one of many current crises in the world,
and in terms of human suffering, possibly not the worst (depending
how crises are evaluated).  However, it attracts special attention
primarily because of the drastic involvement of NATO and possible
implications for the global order.

There are many perspectives on the Kosovo/Serbia Crisis including:

- US/German (ie transnational capitalist) agenda for Balkans
- Serbian nationalist agenda, Kosovo Serbian heartland, seaport
- millennium-old history of ethnic rivalry and conflict
- KLA-Albanian-Mafia drug connection
- Islamic agenda - Iran
- US securing global supremacy, Serbia a Russian ally in Europe,
possible formation of a new coalition to counter US supremacy -
Russia, China, Belarus, Serbia...Ukraine, Iraq...?
- patriarchy - Serbian government, KLA, West attempting to solve
problems through force, asserting their moral rectitude.
- opportunities for US (and European) arms manufacturers, to replace
and to boost sales in a less stable geopolitical environment
- NATO's anniversary and need to demonstrate its raison d'etre
- oil, gold and other minerals in northern Kosovo
- Serbia threatens stability in NATO territory - European agenda
- need to show resolve of NATO to deter future adventurism
- stresses arising from disintegration of the Soviet empire and
pressures of globalisation
- Milosevich playing on historical cultural pain to divide ethnic
communities and strengthen his grip on power

- Russia positioning itself to be broker and receive new loans

Some or all of the above drivers may be arguably valid.  Perhaps only
the combination of many of the above created the necessary volatile
conditions.  These drivers are likely also to be interlinked on many
levels.

The two prime drivers could be defined as patriarchy and ethnic
rivalry [1].

In some circumstances a policy that could be ascribed to the
patriarchal paradigm may be the most appropriate, but in general the
patriarchal paradigm is outmoded, and we need to seek (and are
seeking) alternatives.

Ethnic rivalry and conflict can erupt in times of pressure -
competition for space or resources and unclear precedents (eg shifting
boundaries).  Ethnic, cultural or national identity can fluctuate in
intensity, passion and rigidity.  Ethnic identity can be something very
positive when located in the context of ethnic diversity, but negative
when understood in terms of exclusivity, superiority or isolation.

It is not enough to say that ethnic identity or national identity is mere
chauvanism which we must rise above, because for the most part such
a transition is likely to take many more generations (during which
time we will be faced with many more conflicts), and because a
healthy global worldview is probably built on an awareness and
emotional acceptance of one's cultural origins, as well as a conscious
response to it.

We need to understand the many profiles of ethnic, cultural and
national psyche (in all parts of the world).  In many cases there are
historical traumas which need to be addressed and healed before
certain external manifestations of this trauma - antisocial traits such
as bigotry, intolerance, insecurity, aggression, resentment,
defensiveness etc can be worked on.  How this can be achieved is a
major open question [2].

This is not to say that all manifestations of antisocial behaviour by a
particular group is deeply rooted in historical trauma.  The analysis
should not be taken too far.  But clearly the Balkans, like the Middle
East and Northern Ireland, along with many other regions of actual
and potential ethnic conflict, must be understood from a
macrohistorical perspective.
*
[1] The NATO/military-industrial agenda on the otherhand can be
seen as opportunistic and relatively contemporary.  Regarding this
agenda, note corporate sponsorship of NATO 50th Summit, and
increasing role of Pentagon as an international agent for US weapons
industry (Pentagon has a 'Foreign Sales' office) - see Smart, Tim
'US Arms Makers Rely on Exports for Survival' International Herald
Tribune 18 Feb 1999.
[2] see Jenkins, Palden 'Healing the Hurts of Nations'
http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/palden.html
*
{2. peace and conflict resolution; 11. ethnic relations and
multicivilisations}
*
*
*
CALENDAR
5-14 May 1999  17th Session of the Commission on Human
Settlements, UN headquarters, Nairobi.  Conference will address
follow-up to Habitat II and Local Agenda 21, as well as: Habitat's
support to urban governance; housing rights and security of tenure;
water for African cities; urban poverty/cities for all; urban-rural
synergies; state of the world's cities; cities and peace; World
Bank/Habitat city initiatives.
http://habitat.unchs.org/home.htm

3-6 June 1999 2nd Interdisciplinary Conference on the Evolution of
World Order - 'Global and Local Responsibilities for a Just and
Sustainable Civilisation'  Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto,
Canada   email: <[log in to unmask]>
http://www.pgs.ca/>http://www.pgs.ca/woc/ Newsletter

11-12 June 1999   Local Currency Conference '99.  Creating a
community currency can enable your community to attach a new type
of monetary value to useful activity like: volunteer work, community
service, work experience, training time, barter exchange of goods or
services, starting a small business, and farming and gardening
activity.  It can encourage expansion of community assets, capitalise
community strengths, store that value and transfer it.  Over 1,800
local currency projects now operate in the US, Canada, Europe, Asia,
Australia, Mexico and Brazil.
Center for Community Futures  http://www.cencomfut.com

23-26 June 1999   5th International Interdisciplinary Environmental
Assn (IEA) conference, Baltimore, Maryland.
http://champion.iupui.edu/~mreiter/iea.htm

30 June - 2 July  General Assembly special session on follow-up to
the Population Conference - ICPD UNGASS, New York
http://www.un.org/News/devupdate/latest.htm

12-16 July 1999 International Simulations and Games Association
conference (ISAGA 99) - 'Anticipating the Unexpected'.  Sub-theme
'Futures Studies and Crisis/contingency/emergency management'
University of Technology, Sydney
http://www.education.uts.edu.au/ozsaga
*
*
________________________________________________________
********************************************************
The Global Futures Bulletin is produced by the Institute for Global
Futures Research (IGFR) twice monthly.  Readers are welcome to
submit material such as succinct letters, articles and other useful
information.  Indicate whether you would like your name attached to
the submitted material.  All communications should be directed to the
Editor, e-mail <[log in to unmask]>.  Copyright (c) 1998 Institute for
Global Futures Research (IGFR).  All rights reserved.
________________________________________________________
********************************************************
********************************************************
........................PUBLICATIONS OF THE MONTH..........................
********************************************************
'Millennium - Rendezvous with the Future'  (1998)  166 pages
Eds. Carlos Hernandez and Rashmi Mayur

Includes essays by Alvin Toffler on the psychology of the future,
Lester R. Brown on the urgent global need to raise grain yields,
Maurice F. Strong on the passage from Rio, and Hazel Henderson on
social capital and economic development.

AUD$29 inc post, US$14 inc post, UKPnd 10 inc post.
Add US$3 for post for orders outside Australia, US/Canada or UK.
********************************************************
'The Global Commons: an Introduction'  (1998)
Susan J Buck
240 pages tables, figures, glossary, index.

Vast areas of valuable resources unfettered by legal rights have, for
centuries, been the central target of human exploitation and
appropriation.  The global commons:
- Antarctica,
- the high seas and deep seabed minerals,
- the atmosphere, and
- space
...have remained exceptions only because access has been difficult or
impossible, and the technology for successful extraction has been
lacking.  New technologies that facilitate access means that
management regimes are needed to guide human use of these
important resource domains.

Includes historical underpinnings of international law, examines the
stakeholders involved, and discusses current policy and problems
associated with it.  Applies key analytical concepts drawn from
institutional analysis and regime theory to examine how legal and
political concerns have affected the evolution of management regimes
for the global commons.  Includes in-depth case studies of each of the
four regimes.

AUD$55 inc post, US$29 inc post, UKPnd 23 inc post.
Add US$3 for post for orders outside Australia, US/Canada or UK.
*******************************************************
'Earth Summit II: Outcomes and Analysis' (1998) 192 pages
Derek Osborn and Tom Bigg

Foreword by Tony Blair.

In June 1997, heads of government and senior representatives from
over 130 countries met in New York to consider what progress had
been made since the first Earth Summit in 1992, and to decide upon
priorities for the future.  The book presents the principal official
documents agreed at the Summit alongside an authoritative analysis
of where progress is and is not being made, the reasons for this, and
the priorities of the parties involved.

Proposes a number of original ideas on how to ensure effective
preparations for the 10-year review that will take place in 2002,
seeing that the 5-year review in 1997 had little impact.

Derek Osborn is Chair of the United Nations Environment and
Development UK Committee, Chair of the European Environmental
Agency and a member of the board of the UK Environmental
Agency.  He co-chaired the 1997 Commission for Sustainable
Development (CSD) Intersessional Meeting preparing for Earth
Summit II.

Tom Bigg has worked for UNED-UK since its creation in 1993,
focusing particularly on the work of the CSD.

AUD$49 inc post, US$33 inc post, UKPnd 19 inc post.
Add US$3 for post for orders outside Australia, US/Canada or UK.
********************************************************
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