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COMMUNET Home

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COMMUNET  August 1999, Week 2

COMMUNET August 1999, Week 2

Subject:

The twenty enemies of the Internet (France)

From:

John Walker <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Community and Civic Network discussion list <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 12 Aug 1999 23:04:16 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (344 lines)

Registrations for the On-line Learning Series of Courses are now
being accepted. All courses are delivered by e-mail, are two to
three weeks in duration and cost between $5.00 US and $25.00 US.
Information is available at:

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The following is an excerpt from the CSS Internet News. If you are
going to pass this along to other Netizens please ensure that the
complete message is forwarded with all attributes intact.

--------------------

The twenty enemies of the Internet (France)

Press Release - 9 August 1999
http://www.rsf.fr/uk/alaune/ennemisweb.html

Forty-five countries restrict their citizens' access to the internet
- usually by forcing them to subscribe to a state-run Internet
Service Provider (ISP). Twenty of these countries may be described as
real enemies of this new means of communication. On the pretext of
protecting the public from "subversive ideas" or defending "national
security and unity", some governments totally prevent their citizens
from gaining access to the internet. Others control a single ISP or
even several, installing filters blocking access to web sites
regarded as unsuitable and sometimes forcing users to officially
register with the authorities.

The internet is a two-edged sword for authoritarian regimes. On the
one hand, it enables any citizen to enjoy an unprecedented degree of
freedom of speech and therefore constitutes a threat to the
government. On the other, however, the internet is a major factor in
economic growth, due in particular to online trade and the exchange
of technical and scientific information, which prompts some of these
governments to support its spread. The economic argument seems to be
winning the day in countries such as Malaysia and Singapore, where
controlling "dangerous" sites is proving difficult for the
authorities. Moreover, web surfers can find ways round censorship:
encoding, going through servers that offer anonymity when consulting
banned sites or sending email, connecting via GSM telephones and
cellphones, and so on.

Reporters Sans Frontières has selected 20 countries that it regards
as enemies of the internet because they control access totally or
partially, have censored web sites or taken action against users.
They are: the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus (Azerbaijan,
Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan),
Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Saudi
Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Vietnam.

Belarus

In line with its repressive attitude towards other media, Alexander
Lukashenka's government does not leave its citizens free to explore
the internet independently. Access is supplied by a single ISP,
Belpak, which belongs to the state.

Burma

Censorship is total, due to a state monopoly on access. In addition,
a law passed in September 1996 obliges anyone who owns a computer to
declare it to the government. Those who fail to comply may face up
to 15 years in prison.

Central Asia and the Caucasus

In most of these countries, the authorities control or restrict
internet access. In Tajikistan, a single ISP, Telecom Technologies,
owned by the government, offers web access - and only in the
capital, Dushanbe.

Turkmenistan, a "black hole" where information is concerned, offers
even more restricted access. Although there are privately owned ISPs
in Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, their operations are controlled by the
telecommunications ministry, which is responsible for chastising
those who speak out against the government. In Kazakhstan, and to a
lesser extent in Kirghizia, the authorities demand prohibitively
expensive usage and connection fees from private ISPs.

China

Although internet use is spreading rapidly, the government is trying
to keep up pressure on users. They are closely monitored and are
supposed to register with the authorities. In January 1999 a
computer technician, Lin Hai, was sentenced to two years in prison by
a Shanghai court for giving the email addresses of 30,000 Chinese
subscribers to a dissident site that publishes an online magazine
from the United States. Meanwhile officials fearing disturbances as
the tenth anniversary of the Tiananmen massacre (4 June 1999) drew
near ordered the closure of 300 cybercafe's in Shanghai, on the
pretext that they did not have the necessary authorisation.

In order to prevent the Chinese from finding information on the web,
the authorities have blocked access to some sites. This happened to
the BBC in October 1998. Zhang Weiguo, editor of the New Century Net
(www.ncn.org) site, in Chinese, launched in the United States in
1996, estimates that it takes two months on average for the Chinese
authorities to track down the relay server of a site and block
access to it. The sites then change their address. Some censored
pages are distributed by email, like underground newspapers that are
photocopied and passed around secretly.

Cuba

The government controls the internet, just as it does other media.
There is no free expression in Cuba at national level. About ten
independent - and illegal - news agencies such as Cubanet and Cuba
Free Press telephone reports to organisations based in Miami which
publish them on their web pages. But this news is still the subject
of repression: in October 1998, a foreign ministry official filed a
complaint for "insult" against Mario Viera, of the independent
agency Cuba Verdad, following publication of an article criticising
him on the US-based Cubanet site.

The journalist is still awaiting trial, and faces an 18-month prison
sentence if convicted.

Iran

Censorship of the internet is identical to that affecting other
media and covers the same subjects: sexuality, religion, criticism of
the Islamic Republic, any mention of Israel, the United States, and
so on. Because of the filters put in place by the authorities, access
to some sites is banned: medical students are denied access to web
pages that deal with anatomy, for instance.

Iraq

People in Baghdad have no direct access to the internet. Web sites
of the official press and certains ministries are maintained by
servers based in Jordan. In any case, because of the embargo very few
people own computers.

Libya

It is impossible to explore the web from Libya. The government
carefully keeps the population away from international information
networks with the aim of maintaining control of their minds.

North Korea

People in Pyongyang cannot access the internet. The government
deliberately prevents the population from seeing any news other than
its own propaganda. The few official sites aimed at foreigners (the
national news agency, newspapers and ministries) are maintained by
servers located in Japan.

Saudi Arabia

Even though 37 private companies have been given permission to
operate as ISPs, all traffic at the moment goes through the servers
of the Science and Technology Centre, a public body, which is
equipped with filters banning access to sites that provide
"information contrary to Islamic values". The internet is officially
regarded as "a harmful force for westernising people's minds".

Sierra Leone

As part of their repression of the opposition press, the authorities
have also attacked an online newspaper. In June 1999, two
journalists from the daily The Independent Observer, Abdul Rhaman
Swaray and Jonathan Leigh, were arrested. They were accused in
particular of collaborating with the online newspaper "Ninjas", which
is published on a site based abroad (www.sierra-leone.cc) by
journalists who have gone into hiding.

Sudan

Through Sudanet, the only ISP, the state controls the few
connections to the internet possible in this country where freedom of
expression is often suppressed.

Syria

Internet access is officially banned to individuals. Offenders may
face a prison sentence, just as they may for "unauthorised" contacts
with foreigners. Only official organisations are allowed access to
the internet through the public telecommunications authority, whose
ISP maintains web sites for state newspapers, the national news
agency and a few ministries.

Tunisia

The Tunisian Internet Agency (ATI) controls the two privately owned
ISPs, which are in fact connected with the authorities: one is run
by President Ben Ali's daughter and the second by another person
close to the government. Their central servers control the access of
certain users. In November 1998, following publication by Amnesty
International of a report on human rights violations, a web site
with the address www.amnesty-tunisia.org, deliberately designed to
create confusion with the non-government organisation, praised the
president's work for human rights. The director of the public
relations agency that launched the site - one of whose biggest
customers is the Tunisian government - claimed that he was merely
coming to the country's defence. Meanwhile, access to Amnesty
International's official site was blocked by the authorities.

Vietnam

Anyone who wants to access the internet has to ask for permission
from the interior ministry and sign up with one of the two
state-owned ISPs. Access is blocked to sites maintained by Vietnamese
organisations based abroad and international human rights
organisations. On 9 June, the Police Ministry ordered the post
office to cancel the journalist Nguyen Dan Que's Internet account,
after this former political prisoner had released a communique
through the Internet calling for freedom a month earlier.

Recommendations

Reporters Sans Frontières calls on the governments of these 20
countries to immediately:

- abolish the state monopoly on internet access and, where
appropriate, stop controlling private ISPs,

- cancel the obligation for citizens to register with the government
before obtaining internet access,

- abolish censorship through the use of filters, and stop blocking
access to certain sites maintained by foreign servers,

- protect the confidentiality of internet exchanges, particularly by
lifting controls on electronic mail,

- call off the legal proceedings undertaken against internet users
who have done no more than exercise their right to freedom of
expression.

Reporters Sans Frontières calls on Burma, China, Cuba, Kazakhstan,
Saudi Arabia and Tajikistan to ratify and enforce the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 19 of which
stipulates that "everyone shall have the right (...) to receive and
impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers
(...)".

The organisation also asks those states that have signed the
covenant (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia,
Libya, North Korea, Uzbekistan, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia
and Vietnam) to respect the undertakings they made by doing so.

For further information, please contact RSF. mailto:[log in to unmask]

----------------

Also in this issue:

- Opposition Urges Government to Set Up Information Security Center
  (Asia)
    A legislator of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) on
    Wednesday urged the Executive Yuan to set up an "information warfare
    center" in order to protect the island's electronic networks.
- Expert Sees Why China Conducting Intense Campaigns (Asia)
    A long-time China watcher has cited several factors as explaining why
    a frightened mainland China is conducting intense campaigns against
    the United States, Taiwan and the mystical Falun Gong sect by
    arresting its members and leaders en masse over the past few weeks.
- Book Lending Hits New High (US)
    Libraries Buoyed by Internet Use
    Business is good at your local library.
    The Fairfax County public library system loaned a record number of
    books over the past year. The system also checked out more books
    last month than any other 30-day period in its 60-year history.
- Executives across the globe push for online business standards
  (Europe)
    World business leaders are uniting to lobby for global online
    standards to make the Internet a better place to do business, the
    chief executive of German media giant Bertelsmann said Thursday.
- Scientists Use Web to Share a Costly Tool (US)
    When the price of a scientific instrument runs into hundreds of
    thousands of dollars, it makes sense for scientists to try to get a
    lot of mileage out of it, linking up for experiments and peering
    over one another's shoulders.
- 545 Million User Accounts Globally by 2003 (Ireland)
    A new report from Datamonitor predicts that there will be almost 545
    million Internet user accounts around the world by 2003, surpassing
    the number of PCs installed globally. Currently there are an
    estimated 95 million Internet users accounts worldwide.
- Virtual U to provide college education entirely online (US)
    (IDG) -- The Kentucky Commonwealth Virtual University, a consortium
    of the state's public and private colleges and universities, has
    created a one-stop World Wide Web site that provides access to all
    the enrollment and student services needed to get a college degree
    online.
- Kingston squeezes BT with flat-rate Internet charge (UK)
    KINGSTON COMMUNICATIONS increased the pressure on British Telecom to
    relax its local call charges yesterday with maiden results showing
    that unmetered tariffs can dramatically increase Internet usage.
- The Net: Enemy of the State? (France)
    PARIS -- Twenty nations all but bar the Internet from their borders
    out of fear that the medium is a threat to either national security
    or the social order, a French media organization said in a report
    released earlier this week.
- The twenty enemies of the Internet (France)
    Forty-five countries restrict their citizens' access to the internet
    usually by forcing them to subscribe to a state-run Internet
    Service Provider (ISP).
- Report: Mideast Misses the Net (US)
    WASHINGTON -- Countries in the Middle East are stifling Internet
    growth in the region through oppressive regulation, a new report
    says.
- Academics Propose Takeover of .edu Domain (US)
    A consortium of academic and technology professionals is proposing
    to take over the administration of the top-level .edu domain, setting
    up a potential battle between educators and Network Solutions Inc.
- IE 5 displays FTP user name, password (US)
    KeyLabs tests confirm the bug
    BUGNET Aug. 11 —  Forget about the theoretical security holes in
    Internet Explorer 5 you’ve been reading about lately — you know, the
    ones that have never caused anyone in the known universe any harm
    and probably never will because an army of ultra-high-level hackers
    would be required to open the hole.
- Hacking group reveals Net protocol security glitch (US)
    A hacking group said it has discovered a security vulnerability
    affecting Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 2000, as well as the
    SunOS and Solaris operating systems, allowing unauthorized users to
    intercept outgoing information.
- New Lists and Journals
    * cgihtml
    * juno_accmail
    * MINERALS



On-line Learning Series of Courses
http://www.bestnet.org/~jwalker/course.htm

Member: Association for International Business
-------------------------------

Excerpt from CSS Internet News (tm)  ,-~~-.____
For subscription details email      / |  '     \
[log in to unmask] with              (   )        0
SUBINFO CSSINEWS in the             \_/-, ,----'
subject line.                          ====           //
                                       /  \-'~;    /~~~(O)
"On the Internet no one               /  __/~|   /       |
knows you're a dog"                 =(  _____| (_________|

http://www.bestnet.org/~jwalker

-------------------------------

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July 1996, Week 3
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July 1996, Week 1
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June 1996, Week 1
May 1996, Week 5
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May 1996, Week 3
May 1996, Week 2
May 1996, Week 1
April 1996, Week 5
April 1996, Week 4
April 1996, Week 3
April 1996, Week 2
April 1996, Week 1
March 1996, Week 6
March 1996, Week 5
March 1996, Week 4
March 1996, Week 3
March 1996, Week 2
March 1996, Week 1
February 1996, Week 5
February 1996, Week 4
February 1996, Week 3
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February 1996, Week 1
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October 1995, Week -15
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June 1995, Week 1
May 1995, Week 5
May 1995, Week 4
May 1995, Week 3
May 1995, Week 2
May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
April 1995, Week 2
April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
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January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
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November 1994, Week 1
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October 1994, Week 1
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September 1994, Week 4
September 1994, Week 3
September 1994, Week 2
September 1994, Week 1
August 1994, Week 5
August 1994, Week 4
August 1994, Week 3
August 1994, Week 2
August 1994, Week 1
July 1994, Week 5
July 1994, Week 4
July 1994, Week 3
July 1994, Week 2
July 1994, Week 1
June 1994, Week 5
June 1994, Week 4
June 1994, Week 3
June 1994, Week 2
June 1994, Week 1
May 1994, Week 5
May 1994, Week 4
May 1994, Week 3
May 1994, Week 2
May 1994, Week 1
April 1994, Week 5
April 1994, Week 4
April 1994, Week 3
April 1994, Week 2
April 1994, Week 1
March 1994, Week 5
March 1994, Week 4
March 1994, Week 3
March 1994, Week 2
March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994, Week 2
January 1994, Week 1
December 1993, Week 5
December 1993, Week 4
December 1993, Week 3
December 1993, Week 2
December 1993, Week 1
November 1993, Week 5
November 1993, Week 4
November 1993, Week 3
November 1993, Week 2
November 1993, Week 1
October 1993, Week 5
October 1993, Week 4
October 1993, Week 3
October 1993, Week 2
October 1993, Week 1
September 1993, Week 5
September 1993, Week 4
September 1993, Week 3
September 1993, Week 2
September 1993, Week 1
August 1993, Week 5
August 1993, Week 4
August 1993, Week 3
August 1993, Week 2
August 1993, Week 1
July 1993, Week 5
July 1993, Week 4
July 1993, Week 3
July 1993, Week 2
July 1993, Week 1
June 1993, Week 5
June 1993, Week 4
June 1993, Week 3
June 1993, Week 2
June 1993, Week 1
May 1993, Week 5
May 1993, Week 4
May 1993, Week 3
May 1993, Week 2
May 1993, Week 1
April 1993, Week 5
April 1993, Week 4
April 1993, Week 3
April 1993, Week 2
April 1993, Week 1
March 1993, Week 5
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March 1993
February 1993

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