Imre Lakatos (the philosopher of science)  offered a useful concept in
his idea of “research programs” with “protected cores.“ When a
theoretical or experimental result comes along that seems to refute a
research program, its core is not affected. Instead new kinds of
explanations, hypotheses or processes are added to the program so that
its core concepts remain intact. The only way a research program can be
derailed is if it ceases to grow as fast as some rival program.

Obed Norman of Washington State University offers a Kuhnian analysis of scientific racism and biological determinism at

Incidentally, Norman has also commented on the paper by J. S. Michael which Ian Pitchford suggested undermines Gould's claims about Morton: "J. S. Michael was an undergraduate student who essentially wrote a letter to the editor of the journal 'Current Anthropology '. In this brief report Michael reported on some experiments he had done for an honors class in anthropology. This three-page student report contains nothing that contradicts any of Stephen J. Gould's work, which was published in the journal 'Science'.... Michael has become the darling of racists of all stripes who inflate the merits of his work for obvious reasons."