BAGHDAD (April 11) - Marine Cpl. James Lis, 21 years old, is worried that for 
the rest of his life he'll be haunted by the image: A clean-shaven, 
twentysomething Iraqi in a white shirt, lying wounded in an alleyway and 
reaching for his rifle -- just as Cpl. Lis pumped two shots into his head.

"Every time I close my eyes I see that guy's brains pop out of that guy's 
head," Cpl. Lis, from Shreveport, La., told his platoon mates Thursday, as 
they sat in a circle in the ruins of the Iraqi Oil Ministry's employee 
cafeteria. "That's a picture in my head that I will never be able to get rid 

For Marine infantrymen now occupying the eastern half of the Iraqi capital, 
the worst fighting is probably over. But they're just beginning to cope with 
the psychological aftershocks of having faced death and inflicted it.

One lesson the military learned from painful experience with post-traumatic 
stress disorder after Vietnam is that troops may come home more mentally 
intact if, as soon as possible, they talk to each other about what they've 
gone through. In infantry school, Marine officers are taught to encourage 
their troops to talk about their experiences after battles. So, platoon by 
platoon, many Marines in Iraq are starting to hold informal group-therapy 
sessions -- "critical incident debriefings" in military parlance -- in which 
they share their feelings about what they've seen and what they've done.    

"The touchy-feely stuff -- that's no joke," Second Lt. Isaac Moore told the 
platoon he commands in Lima Company of the First Marine Division, Seventh 
Regiment, Third Battalion. "If you keep picturing this guy and you shot him 
in the head, you've got to talk about that.

"Though a few had been shot at in Somalia, none of the 47 Marines of Lt. 
Moore's Second Platoon had seen any real combat before arriving in Iraq. Even 
during the war's first weeks, it seemed unlikely that they'd have to test 
their mettle. Iraqi forces always ran away before the platoon arrived. The 
platoon's first scrape was a minor encounter three weeks ago near Zubayr in 
which somebody took a few shots at the Marines, who returned fire for 40 
minutes to no practical effect. No one on either side was hurt.

As they moved into Baghdad, however, the platoon ran into an escalating 
series of firefights with pro-regime militants armed with rifles and 
rocket-propelled grenades. The fiercest was a battle Tuesday in the shell of 
a large building under construction in the city's southeast. The platoon 
began taking sniper fire, and the Marines soon found themselves shooting at 
enemy fighters just a few feet away, in a maze of pillars and open 

It's a fight that has left deep marks on the young men. That's what Lt. Moore 
wanted them to talk about. So as they relaxed on cushions stripped off Oil 
Ministry sofas and awaited orders to patrol the city for Fedayeen holdouts 
and foreign suicide squads, the lieutenant invited each Marine to tell the 
platoon what he experienced, and how he felt about it. 

Cpl. Anthony Antista, 29, from Monrovia, Calif., initially celebrated after 
he shot dead two Iraqi paramilitary men in a corner of the building site. But 
the exhilaration instantly gave way to guilt, especially for having felt glad 
that he had taken lives. "Hey, I shot two people," he told his comrades 
immediately after the fight.

The rest of the platoon brushed him off. He persisted: "I shot two people." 
They thought he was bragging. What he was really doing, he said, was trying 
to find someone who might understand how bad he felt.

It's an issue that was still on his mind two days later. "I can't share my 
pain with you because you don't accept that I killed two guys," Cpl. Antista 
told his comrades. To emphasize his point, he removed the magazine from his 
rifle, emptied the round from the firing chamber and acted out the encounter. 
He showed how he raised his rifle and fired. Then he sat on the ground and 
demonstrated how the Iraqis slumped when the rounds hit them."

The life just flowed right out of them," he said in a pained voice. "They 
were like Jell-O."

Staff Sgt. Matthew St. Pierre, 28, from Vallejo, Calif., faced off with an 
Iraqi fighter whose eyeglasses and face reminded him of one of his own 
Marines, Lance Cpl. Lance Carmouche, a 21-year-old machine gunner from 
Beaumont, Texas. The sergeant, the platoon's senior noncommissioned officer, 
took two shots as the Iraqi popped up from behind a low wall five feet away. 
He wasn't sure whether he hit the man, but the sergeant saw his body later."

Now every time I see Lance Cpl. Carmouche, I think of him," Sgt. St. Pierre 
told his men. A few minutes later in the fight, Sgt. St. Pierre found four 
Iraqi men in a small enclosed area. Three were apparently dead, but one, 
wounded, reached for his weapon. The staff sergeant shot him between the 
shoulder blades. The man again reached for his rifle, this time more slowly. 
The staff sergeant shot him in the back of the head.

When the gunfire quieted, the staff sergeant "eye-thumped" the Iraqi's body, 
to make sure he was really dead. The process involved poking the man in the 
eye with a rifle muzzle, the theory being that no man alive can avoid 
scrunching up his face in response to such a provocation.

It was an "eerie feeling," the staff sergeant recalled, "like I just did what 
the Lord in the Bible says not to do." But he added, "we did nothing wrong. 
They made no attempt to surrender, and we put them down."

Lt. Moore, 26, tried to comfort his troops by relating his own experience as 
a hunter, growing up in Wasilla, Alaska. He shot his first caribou at the age 
of seven or eight, he told them. It was thrilling to see the animal fall. 
When he got closer, however, he saw the caribou was still alive, convulsing 
in pain. The boy was unsure whether he was supposed to feel good or bad.

Over years of hunting caribou, bear and other animals, he grew accustomed to 
eye-thumping and death. So when Lt. Moore looked down from a staircase in the 
building in Baghdad and saw three Iraqis below, he didn't hesitate. The men 
had been wounded by a burst of machine-gun fire, but they were still moving. 
The lieutenant shot one man point-blank in the head and watched the results; 
the next man was twitching and got the same treatment."

It's gross, but here's the thing," the lieutenant told his Marines. "That 
queasy feeling -- I don't get that at all."

Keep in mind, he continued, the kind of die-hards they are fighting. To 
illustrate his point, Lt. Moore told them about something that had happened 
earlier in the day: A man who had escaped from one of Saddam Hussein's 
prisons after 13 years walked back to Baghdad to look for his family and 
somehow got past Marine guards at the Oil Ministry. The Marines found him 
curled up asleep in a corner. The man, Lt. Moore recounted, had acid and 
electric-shock burns on his legs.

The people who did that to the prisoner, the lieutenant said, are the sort of 
people the Marines were killing. "This is not somebody you need to worry 
about killing," he assured his troops. "When you stand outside the Pearly 
Gates or whatever you believe in, you're not going to be looked at any 
differently for what you did here." 

Cpl. Lis, however, couldn't shake it off so easily. A genial jokester with a 
sand-colored buzz cut, the corporal has had the platoon's closest brushes 
with death in Iraq. He recounted them, one after another, for his fellow 
troops. On Wednesday, when the Marines seized the Oil Ministry, Cpl. Lis 
climbed to the roof to take a look at downtown Baghdad. A bullet heading 
towards his face missed him only because it hit the narrow metal rail in 
front of him.

At one point during the gunfight at the construction site, Cpl. Lis threw a 
hand grenade at an enemy fighter, only to have the Iraqi throw it back at 
Cpl. Juan Nielsen, a 26-year-old from Los Angeles. The grenade exploded, 
sending small pieces of metal shrapnel into Cpl. Nielsen's outer left ear -- 
a painful, but minor wound that turned out to be the only American casualty 
of the fight.

Later, Cpl. Lis saw a pineapple-shaped Iraqi grenade land less than eight 
feet in front of him, and two others -- Sgt. Timothy Wolkow, 26, from 
Huntington Beach, Calif., and Cpl. Dustin Soudan, 21, from Girard, Pa. Cpl. 
Lis yelled at the others to get down, and they crouched, covering their heads 
as it exploded. None of them were injured.

Then there was the moment that he worries will always haunt him: He saw the 
young Iraqi in the white shirt lying on his back, his right arm extended 
above his head, where a rifle lay. Another rifle was near his left arm. When 
the man moved his right arm toward the rifle, Sgt. Wolkow shot him. The man 
started moving again, and this time both Marines shot him in the head, Cpl. 
Lis firing twice.

Then Cpl. Lis performed the eye-thump ritual on the man. "It's the sickest 
feeling I've ever had in my life," he said at the therapy session.

Sgt. Wolkow had a more fleeting reaction. "As much as I love the Marine Corps 
and want to kill people, for a few seconds there was a kind of eerie 
feeling," after the first time he shot the man, he said. "It went away, and I 
shot the guy some more."

Write to Michael M. Phillips at <A HREF="mailto:[log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]</A>    

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