Julie, Maybe the Hawthorne effect? In which bias occurs because people know they are being studied? Go to http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/book_contents/1overview/management_history/mgmt_history.htm for discussion. Hawthorne is the name of the plant where the studies took place (Western Electric) as opposed to the name of the researcher who formulated the principle. Catherine Arnott Smith, PhD 4-179 Center for Science and Technology Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13210 (315) 443-6889 work email: casmit07REPLACETHISTEXTWITHATSYMBOLsyr.edu >>> Julie Smith <[log in to unmask]> 04/28/03 04:58PM >>> Hello all, I'm hoping this will ring a bell with someone. I'm trying to find something called the "Schmidt effect" ( patron is not sure of the spelling of Schmidt). This deals with the idea that the mere fact that subjects are involved in a research study tends to slightly improve their outcomes-- whether they're being managed better or they think someone is paying more attention to them. At any rate, with the resources I have in a hospital library- I'm not finding this!! If you can shed any light on this I'd be most appreciative. Julie Smith, MLS Library Manager St. Joseph Hospital Orange, Ca 714 771-8291 714 744-8533 fax [log in to unmask] Notice from St.Joseph Health System: Please note that the information contained in this message may be privileged and confidential and protected from disclosure.