Although humans share 99.5% of their genes, there may be much  
variation that is interesting, even profitable, in the remaining  
0.5%.  Companies now market race-specific medications, vitamins, and  
cosmetics.  Competing laboratories offer genetic analyses for  
ancestry and forensics.  Will this commodification of racial science  
help the targeted populations and society at large?  Should this  
commercialization of racial difference be endorsed or sanctioned?   
Drawing on history, anthropology, law, ethics, medicine, economics,  
and sociology, this conference explores the promise and pitfalls of  
the new business of race and science.

The emergence of BiDil® as the first medication approved and marketed  
for treating specific racial and ethnic groups raises many crucial  
questions for medicine and society. Do the causes of disease vary  
significantly between different racial and ethnic groups? Should  
other group-specific medications be developed? Should treatment  
decisions be based on the race and ethnicity of patients? Many of  
these questions reflect old tensions in medicine, made newly relevant  
by growing concerns with health disparities, the advent of genetic  
technology, and the intensification of pharmaceutical marketing. This  
conference brings together scholars from many fields -- medicine,  
history, anthropology, nursing, sociology, STS, genetics, public  
health, business, African-American studies, ethics, and law -- to  
discuss the promise and pitfalls of the new racial therapeutics in  


FRIDAY, 30 March 2007

8:30–9:00 Continental Breakfast

9:00–9:20 Welcome and Introductory Remarks
David Jones

9:20–10:20 INVITED LECTURE: Mike Fortun
Race in the Meantime: The “Care for the Data” for Complex Conditions

10:20–10:30 Break

10:30–12:15 PANEL 1: The Business of Race and Ancestry

Commercial Ventures in Genetic Ancestry Testing and the Science of  
Racial Genetics
Deborah Bolnick

Race, Genetic Ancestry, and the Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary  
Ricardo Santos and Marcos Chor Maio

To Count Is to Be Counted: Exploring Alignments Between Census, Race,  
and Health in Contemporary Britain
Richard Tutton

12:15–1:00 Lunch

1:00–2:45 PANEL 2: Debating Race in Biomedicine

The Business of Racial Criticism in Biomedical Research
George Ellison and Simon M. Outram

Physicians’ Attitudes Regarding Race-Based Therapeutics
Danielle Frank and others

“It Could Be in the Genes”:  Alzheimer’s Disease and the  
Practice of (Re)Membering Personhood
Mateo Munoz

2:45-3:00 Break

3:00–4:45 PANEL 3: Debating Race in Clinical Trials

deCODE, Veliflapon, and GRAHF: Efforts to Identify Genetic-Based  
Approaches to CVD Reduction in African Americans
Keith Ferdinand

Metaphors, Mentality and the Manufacture of Knowledge:  The PAARTNERS  
Study into Schizophrenia
Andrew Fearnley

Killer Applications: Clinical Trials, Race, and the Metabolic Syndrome
Anthony Hatch

4:45-5:00 Break

5:00–6:00 KEYNOTE ADDRESS: Keith Wailoo

6:00–7:00 Reception

SATURDAY, 31 March 2007  8 April 2006

8:30–9:00 Continental Breakfast

9:00–10:00 INVITED LECTURE: Frank Douglas

10:00–10:10 Break

10:10–12:30 PANEL 4: Genetic Research, Vulnerable Populations, and  
the Law

Intellectual Property, Human Rights, and Indigenous Perspectives
Gail Lasprogata

Prisons as Biocolonies: Race, Biomedicine, and the Ethics of Using  
Prisoners as Research Subjects
Osagie Obasogie

Race, Genetics, and Forensic Analysis
Hilary Robinson

Commercializing Race: People as Patents
Lori Andrews

Patenting Race
Jonathan Kahn

12:30–1:15 Lunch

1:15–3:00 PANEL 5: Racial Commodities

‘Solaro’ and Selling Protection from the Tropical Sun:
British Ideas of Medicine and Hygiene in Warm Climates, 1900-1920
Ryan Johnson

The Fair, the Dark and the Ugly:  Mediating the Interests of  
Technology, Business,
and Societies in Third World Economies
Nirajan Man Singh and Aakash Prasad

Kampo: A Racial Science/Business
Wen Hua Kuo

3:00-3:15 Break

3:15–5:00 PANEL 6: Selling the Racialized Past

Packaging Race for Students: How Biology Textbooks Sell Human Difference
Ann Morning

Salt Sensitivity and the Middle Passage
Roland Fryer

Race, Populations, and the New Genomics
Lundy Braun and Evelynn Hammonds

  5:00–5:30 Concluding Remarks

5:30–6:30 Reception


Mike Fortun is a historian and anthropologist of science who focuses  
on the
science and political economy of contemporary genomics. His book  
Genomics: Iceland, deCODE Genetics, and a World of Speculation, using  
deCODE case to analyze the growth of the genomics industry in the  
years of 1998-2001, will be published by the University of California  
Press in
2007. His current ethnographic project is as a member of a  
research group examining how genomics research can address health  
in asthma and nicotine dependence. He is co-editor, with Kim Fortun,  
of the
journal Cultural Anthropology.

Deborah Bolnick is a Lecturer and Research Fellow in the Dept of  
at the University of Texas at Austin. She received her Ph.D. in  
from the University of California, Davis. Her research explores the  
between human culture, history, and genetic variation, as well as the  
that American ideas about race influence genetic ancestry research.

Ricardo Ventura Santos is a biological anthropologist who received  
his PhD
from Indiana University (1991). He is professor of biological  
anthropology and
public health at the National School of Public Health of the Oswaldo  
Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His most recent book is "The  
Xavante in
Transition: Health, Ecology and Bioanthropology in Central  
Brazil" (University of
Michigan Press), which was awarded the 2003 General Anthropology  
Award for
Exemplary Cross-Field Scholarship, General Anthropology Division,  
Anthropological Association.

Marcos Chor Maio is a sociologist and political scientist who  
received his PhD
from the Candido Mendes University, Rio de Janeiro (1997). He is  
professor of
sociology and history of science at the History of Science Unit of  
the Oswaldo
Cruz Foundation. He has published widely on the sociology and history  
of race
relations in Brazil.

Richard Tutton is a sociologist with research interests in the themes of
identity, personhood, and citizenship in relation to science and  
particularly human genetics. He has published on the donation of  
human tissue
for biomedical research, public and patient participation in science,  
geneticists’ use of race/ethnicity in their research. In 2004, he co- 
Genetic Databases (Routledge: London and New York) that explored the  
ethical and legal aspects of biobanks.

George Ellison is Professor of Health Sciences at St George's,  
University of
London where his research focuses on social inequalities in health  
and the use
of race/ethnicity in related biomedical research. This culminated in a
collection of articles entitled "The Nature of Difference: Science,  
Society and
Human Biology" which he co-edited with Alan Goodman and was published by
Taylor and Francis in 2006. His current work in this area includes a
collaborative project on the use of race/ethnicity by biobanks and
pharmacogenomics research with colleagues from Nottingham University,
Queen Mary's College and Bath Spa University funded by the Wellcome  

Simon Outram

Danielle Frank is an internal medicine physician currently completing a
Master's Degree in Public Health at the University of Washington. She
completed her internal medicine residency training and outpatient chief
medical residency year at the University of Washington and Veteran's  
Hospital Puget Sound respectively. She is currently a Health Services  
Department Fellow at the VA Puget Sound. Danielle's research interests
include exploring physicians' perspectives on race-based medicine and  
implications for medical education.

Mateo Munoz is a second year graduate student in American Studies at the
University of Maryland College Park. His research interests are risk,  
and the mind/body "problem." Mateo is currently examining how cognition,
race and diagnostics reconfigure personhood in relationship to  

Keith C. Ferdinand, MD, FACC is a Clinical Professor of Medicine at  
University, and Chief Science Officer and past-Chairman of the  
Association of
Black Cardiologists, Inc. He was on the steering committee of the A- 
HeFT and
DeCODE study and is board certified in cardiovascular diseases, ASH- 
in hypertension and a diplomat, nuclear cardiology. His medical  
degree is from
Howard University.

Andrew Fearnley is a Ph.D. Candidate in American History at the  
University of
Cambridge, UK, currently writing his thesis on 'Ideas of Race and  
Insanity in the
Modern United States.' He has published articles on historians of  
race and
medicine in the Journal of Medicine and Allied Sciences, and,  
forthcoming, in
the Social History of Medicine Journal.

Anthony Hatch is a PhD Candidate in Sociology at the University of  
Maryland at
College Park. He received his A.B. in Philosophy at Dartmouth College.
Anthony currently holds an ASA/NIHM Minority Fellowship. His doctoral
research traces the coproduction of the metabolic syndrome and racial
categories through contemporary biomedical scientific practices.

Keith Wailoo, a historian of race and medicine, is a professor in the
Department of History and the Institute for Health, Health Care  
Policy and
Aging Research at Rutgers University. He has authored many books,  
Drawing Blood, Dying in the City of Blues, and The Troubled Gene of  
Medicine. He is currently working on a history of cancer and race in  
the United
States, and a history of pain management since World War II.

Frank Douglas is the Executive Director of the MIT Center for Biomedical
Innovation. Born in British Guiana, he received his Ph.D. in  
Chemistry and his
M.D. from Cornell University. He trained in Internal Medicine at  
Johns Hopkins
Hospital and completed a fellowship in neuroendocrinology at NIH. After
teaching at the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of  
Chicago, we
worked at Ciba Geigy than then Aventis SA, where he was Chief Scientific
Officer and Executive Vice President for Drug Innovation and  
Approval. In
addition to his work at MIT, he serves on many government and industry
advisory boards.

Gail Lasprogata is an Associate Professor at the Seattle  
University’s Albers
School of Business and Economics where she teaches business and  
law courses to undergraduate and graduate students, as well as  
courses in
corporate social responsibility to executive MBA students. Her  
research focuses
on international human rights and corporate social responsibility.  
Her recent
interest in the intersection of law, culture, and science stems from her
previous work on genetics and privacy law, coupled with her passion for
learning about indigenous traditions and spirituality.

Osagie Obasogie is a bioethicist with the Center for Genetics and  
Society in
Oakland, CA. His work looks at the ethical, social, and legal  
implications of
human biotechnologies, with a particular focus on their impact on  
of color. He is also a regular contributor to the blog Biopolitical  
Times, located
at Obasogie is a graduate of Yale  
and Columbia Law School, where he was a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar  
and an
editor for the National Black Law Journal.

H. C. Robinson is the Reginald F. Lewis Fellow for Law Teaching at  
Law School where her research focuses on the transformation of norms by
scientific innovation, and the use of law to modulate and mediate  
this process.
In her law studies, she has explored the impact of paternity testing,  
sperm and
ovum donation, and surrogacy arrangements on legal doctrines that  
the heterosexual, nuclear family as the sole basis for lawful  
kinship. The law
itself, she concluded, acts like a specialized technology, relying on  
understandings of kinship, such as intent to create a family, rather  
than on
biological certainties like genetic relatedness, to reframe what  
science makes
possible (reproduction) as an outcome both legally viable and socially
significant (parenthood). In her continuing scholarly work, she is  
interested in
bringing a multidisciplinary approach into those aspects of the law  
that intersect most closely with scientific innovation.

Lori Andrews is a distinguished professor of law at Chicago-Kent Law  
and Director of the Institute for Science, Law and Technology. She  
has been
visiting professor at Princeton University, and an advisor to  
Congress, foreign
governments, and various federal agencies. Her most recent books  
Genetics: Ethics, Law and Policy (with Mark Rothstein and Maxwell  
and, Body Bazaar: The Market for Human Tissue in the Biotechnology Age
(with Dorothy Nelkin).

Holding a PhD in History from Cornell University and a JD from Boalt  
Hall School
of at UC Berkeley, Jonathan Kahn writes on issues in history,  
politics, and
law. He specializes in biotechnology and its implications for our  
ideas of
identity and citizenship. Professor Kahn has written several articles  
on BiDil
and related issues of using racial cateogries in biomedical research  
and product
development, including "How a Drug Becomes Ethnic: Law, Commerce and the
Production of Racial Categories in Medicine," published in the Yale  
Journal of
Health Policy, Law & Ethics. In 2003 he was awarded a grant from the  
Institutes of Health to support a project titled: "Colliding Categories:
Haplotypes, Race, and Ethnicity." He is currently working on issues  
related to
the increasing use of racial categories in biotechnology-related  
Ryan Johnson is a PhD candidate at the Wellcome unit for the history of
medicine, University of Oxford, working on ideas of British tropical  
and hygiene with Professor Mark Harrison. He is currently looking at  
and consumer culture relating to tropical travel, and the Baptist  
Society in the Congo Free State at the beginning of the twentieth  
century. He
is also interested in tropical surgery and military surgeons.

Nirajan Man Singh is a third year law student of the five year B.A.BL 
course at the National Academy of Legal Studies and Research Hyderabad,
India. A Cambridge Advance level graduate,(UK) his primary focus  
after he
joined law school has been the interplay of law and technology in the  
of broader social issues.

Aakash Prasad, is a third year law student of the five year B.A.B.L.  
course at the National Academy of Legal Studies and Research, Hyderabad,
India. His primary area of interest is Alternative Dispute Resolution  
in the
background of social engineering. He has done a large number of research
projects, internships, and papers in this area.

Wen-Hua Kuo teaches at National Yang-Ming University, where he holds  
a joint
instructorship at the Center for General Education and Department of  
Medicine. His research interests include medical policies and their  
impacts in East Asia. He has published papers on Taiwan’s population  
policy and is currently working on a manuscript concerning the  
debates over
racial differences in the International Conference on Harmonisation of
Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
drug regulations.

Ann Morning, Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at  
New York
University, earned her Ph.D. in Sociology at Princeton University in  
2004. Her
doctoral thesis, which traced the definitions of race that are  
conveyed to the
public through formal education, was a co-winner of the American  
Association’s 2005 Dissertation Award. Morning’s interests include  
the uses of
racial classification in demography, law, medicine and genetic  
research, with a
particular focus on the categorization of the multiracial population  
and of
immigrant groups.

Roland Fryer is an assistant professor of economics at Harvard  
University, a
faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research,  
and a
junior fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows. He has published  
papers on
topics such as the racial achievement gap, the causes and  
consequences of
distinctively black names, affirmative action, the impact of the  
crack cocaine
epidemics, and ‘acting white.’ He is an unapologestic analyst of  
inequality who uses theoretical and empirical tools to squeeze truths  
from the
data -- wherever that may lead. His work has been profiled in Fortune,
Esquire, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Boston Globe, and
Black Voices.

Lundy Braun is an Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory  
and Africana Studies and a member of the Faculty Committee on Science  
Technology Studies at Brown University. She received her PhD from Johns
Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1982. Her  
focuses on the history of race and science and the invisibility of  
disease, especially asbestos-related diseases in South Africa. She is  
working on a monograph on the history of racialization of the  
technology for
measuring lung capacity.

Evelynn Hammonds founded the Center for the Study of Diversity in  
Technology, and Medicine at MIT. She is now Professor of History of  
and of African and African-American Studies, and Senior Vice Provost for
Faculty Development and Diversity at Harvard University.

s. e. anderson (author of "The Black Holocaust for Beginners" -  
Writers + Readers) +