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August 9, 2008
Neanderthals and modern humans shared an
ancestor that lived about 660,000 years ago, according to scientists
who have pieced together the first complete sequence of maternal DNA
from humanity's closest cousins.
The DNA evidence also verified that the two species did not interbreed
during the 10,000 to 20,000 years they coexisted in Europe and western
Asia after humans migrated there from Africa. The last of the
Neanderthals died out about 30,000 years ago, though some scientists
speculate that at least a few of their genes live on in humans.
"Neanderthals made no lasting contribution to the modern human
[maternal] DNA gene pool," a team of German, American, Croatian
and Finnish researchers wrote in Friday's edition of the journal
The team focused on
mitochondrial DNA, a relatively short string of 16,565 As, Ts, Cs and
Gs that spell out 13 genes for controlling the energy sources of
pause here to note that the 'Dolly' and other "cloning"
con-artists base their racket on ignoring this DNA in the cytoplasm
which very largely remains after the nucleus has been sucked out of
the target cell. The foreign nucleus then inserted (containing
e.g added DNA to code for a human protein of no proven therapeutic
use) can certainly not define the genome of the target cell, if only
because thousands of mitochondria remain in the target cell's
Estimates of the number of genes in a mitochondrion have
ranged as high as 300, illustrating inter alia the surprising
range (unknown to lay folk) of defns for 'gene'. But whether
only 13 in number, these genes are agreed to be important, indeed
crucial, for the cell (mainly in aerobic metabolism).
that easy to see why the "clone" sheep, goats, cows etc of
e.g AgResearch® cannot be clones, cannot be as similar as identical
twins. What is not so easy to see is why so many
venture-drongos, and governments, have allowed themselves to be conned
by this "clones" furphy. These gene-jockey racketeers
make the nookuluh pushers look honest!
Unlike nuclear DNA, which is
unique for every person
pause again to note that this statement is true (aside from the
presumed identical DNA in identical twins), giving the lie to the
"the human genome" furphy. I have heard J. Celera
Venter tell a large audience that the draft he had published was for
"the" sequence from some sort of blend of several
individuals. There was even a rumour at one stage that one of
those DNA donors was non-white. Numerous DNA sequences, even
within a given gene (e.g for cystic fibrosis) differ between
individuals. There can be no such thing as "the" human
genome. Yet a con-man like J. Celera Venter can be admired by
Pres. Clinton and many other important people. This deceit far
outstrips the nookuluh racket.
will happen to a society in which such drastic degradation of
truthfulness has become not only tolerated but also heavily rewarded &
prestigious? Ask the Germans ...
, mitochondrial DNA is passed virtually
unchanged from mother to child.
Members of the research group are engaged
in a two-year effort to decode the roughly 3 billion letters of
nuclear DNA contained in a 38,000-year-old Neanderthal bone fragment
discovered in a Croatian cave.
In the process, they collected enough maternal DNA to sequence that
genome with a high degree of certainty, said lead author Ed Green, a
postdoctoral scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary
Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
Comparison of the Neanderthal sequence to 10 human sequences suggests
that the species diverged 520,000 to 800,000 years ago -- earlier than
the 400,000 years scientists had previously estimated using fossil
Scientists have sequenced maternal DNA from thousands of people around
the world to study the history of human migration out of Africa. All
of them are distinct from the Neanderthal version, Green said.
Most scientists accept the view that there aren't any Neanderthal
genes in the human genome, but evolutionary geneticist Jeff Wall of UC
San Francisco said that only "large amounts of high-quality
Neanderthal nuclear DNA sequences" will resolve the issue once
and for all.
could even have got in by non-sexual means of horizontal gene transfer
(a process of which eminent gene-jiggerers denied the existence only a
few y ago).