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I found out from experience that if you use lowercase operators and save 
a search in MyNCBI things can get a little wacky.  If operators are 
lowercase, their uppercase counterpart may be added to the search.
Example-
My search- nursing and (librarian or information professional)
What it turns into in MyNCBI- nursing *and AND* (librarian OR 
information professional)

If you use uppercase letters, then the operators don't multiply 
themselves.  Saving the search just now and then rerunning it by 
clicking on it in My NCBI the duplicate operators don't seem to produce 
a problem with the search.  When I reran the search in the past though I 
received fewer results, sometimes zero.

Just something to keep in mind.


Brooke L Billman, MA, AHIP
AZHIN Librarian
Arizona Health Sciences Library
University of Arizona
1501 N Campbell Ave, PO Box 245079
Tucson, AZ 85724
520/626-1544
[log in to unmask] <mailto:[log in to unmask]>
http://azhin.org/
http://ahsl.arizona.edu/


We make our world significant by the courage of our questions and by the 
depth of our answers.
--Carl Sagan



Samuel Johnson wrote:
> &lt;div class="moz-text-flowed" style="font-family: 
> -moz-fixed"&gt;Hello all,
> <br>
> <br>This is not a new Boolean rule in searching PubMed. The all caps 
> AND and the option of lower case or/not has been the NLM rule for 
> quite some time dating back at least to the beginning or first few 
> years of the decade.
> <br>
> <br>Samuel L. Johnson
> <br>Library Director/Adjunct Professor
> <br>Saba University School of Medicine
> <br>Netherlands Antilles
> <br>[log in to unmask]
> <br>011-599 416 3456 ext. 237
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>
> <br><blockquote type=cite>Thanks to all for this discussion and 
> clarification.&nbsp; I was working&nbsp; on a lecture for a systematic 
> review class.&nbsp; I'd developed a way to&nbsp; search for SRs in 
> PubMed but used lower case "or" and "and".
> <br>
> <br>When I changed to upper case, my results were quite 
> different.&nbsp; I&nbsp; cannot believe the counter-intuitive, 
> illogical search rules for&nbsp; PubMed.&nbsp; I'll be sure to point 
> this out to my class, along with a&nbsp; comparison between the two 
> searches and an Ovid Medline search.
> <br>
> <br>Helena
> <br>
> <br>Helena M. VonVille, MLS, MPH
> <br>Library Director
> <br>University of Texas School of Public Health
> <br>Houston, TX
> <br>[log in to unmask]&lt;mailto:[log in to unmask]&gt;
> <br>713-500-9131
> <br>713-500-9125 (fax)
> <br>________________________________________
> <br>From: Medical Libraries Discussion List [[log in to unmask]] 
> On&nbsp; Behalf Of Lee Hover [[log in to unmask]]
> <br>Sent: Monday, January 18, 2010 7:06 AM
> <br>To: [log in to unmask]
> <br>Subject: Re: The plot thickens: PubMed's all caps Boolean rule?
> <br>
> <br>Leave it to NLM!&nbsp; Do we really want to devote that much 
> thought to what
> <br>should require none?&nbsp; I'll just use caps as always &amp; say 
> the heck with it.
> <br>(Actually, that's NOT what I'll say, but let's keep it clean!)
> <br>
> <br>Lee Hover, D. Med. Hum.
> <br>Information Developers
> <br>Boonton Twp., NJ
> <br>
> <br>-----Original Message-----
> <br>From: Medical Libraries Discussion List 
> [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On
> <br>Behalf Of Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya
> <br>Sent: Monday, January 18, 2010 3:11 AM
> <br>To: [log in to unmask]
> <br>Subject: The plot thickens: PubMed's all caps Boolean rule?
> <br>
> <br>Thanks to Cheryl Hamill from Australia for pointing this out:
> <br>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/mj07/mj07_mla_qa.html
> <br>
> <br>So why is NLM telling us differently?&nbsp; I'd spoken to a nice 
> NLM librarian
> <br>who swore up and down that it was still required.&nbsp; 
> Grrrr.&nbsp; I don't want to
> <br>be teaching my patrons do to an extra step if they don't have to.
> <br>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=lppubmed&amp;part=pubmedhel
> <br>p#pubmedhelp.Combining_search_ter
> <br>
> <br>Take care,
> <br>
> <br>Tanya
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>Tanya Feddern-Bekcan, MLIS, AHIP, MOT, OTR/L
> <br>(&lt;http://www.geocities.com/nqiya/libraryarticles.html&gt;formerly 
> Tanya
> <br>Feddern)
> <br>305.243.3999 - [log in to unmask] - 305.325.9670 (fax)
> <br>
> <br>EBM Theme Director, Reference and Education Librarian, &amp; 
> Occupational
> <br>Therapist
> <br>
> <br>Louis Calder Memorial Library @ the University of Miami Miller 
> School of
> <br>Medicine
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>"A library without a librarian is a reading room."-- Jenny Garcia 
> of the
> <br>University of Wyoming, MLS, AHIP
> <br>
> <br>________________________________
> <br>From: Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya
> <br>Sent: Monday, January 18, 2010 12:06 AM
> <br>To: Medlib ([log in to unmask]); [log in to unmask];
> <br>[log in to unmask]
> <br>Subject: PubMed's all caps Boolean rule?
> <br>
> <br>***cross-posted; feel free to repost***
> <br>
> <br>Hello, everyone.&nbsp; I spoke with a librarian at NLM a couple of 
> days ago.&nbsp; She
> <br>says that despite rumor, PubMed still requires&nbsp; Boolean to be 
> in all capital
> <br>letters.&nbsp; Their documentation still states this:
> <br>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=lppubmed&amp;part=pubmedhel
> <br>p#pubmedhelp.Combining_search_ter
> <br>"Enter Boolean operators in uppercase characters to combine or exclude
> <br>search terms..."
> <br>
> <br>However, this seems to only be an issue when combining two or more 
> terms
> <br>with field tags (as shown below).&nbsp; Everything else seems to 
> work.&nbsp; Could
> <br>anyone please come up with an example whereby searching with lowercase
> <br>Boolean leads to poor results?
> <br>
> <br>#66&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search common cold and (vitamin c or zinc)
> <br>23:40:21&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 382&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#65&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search common cold and (vitamin c OR zinc)
> <br>23:40:14&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 382&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#64&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search common cold AND (vitamin c OR zinc)
> <br>23:40:06&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 382&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#71&nbsp; Search Wounds and Injuries and infection&nbsp; 38881 hits
> <br>#70&nbsp; Search Wounds and Injuries AND infection&nbsp; 38881 hits
> <br>#67&nbsp; Search common cold AND (vitamin c or zinc) 382 hits
> <br>#66&nbsp; Search common cold and (vitamin c or zinc) 382 hits
> <br>#65&nbsp; Search common cold and (vitamin c OR zinc) 382 hits
> <br>#64&nbsp; Search common cold AND (vitamin c OR zinc) 382 hits
> <br>#63&nbsp; Search dna and multiple sclerosis 1518 hits
> <br>#62&nbsp; Search dna AND multiple sclerosis 1518 hits
> <br>#61&nbsp; Search dna [mh] and multiple sclerosis [mh] 0 hits
> <br>#60&nbsp; Search dna [mh] AND multiple sclerosis [mh] 415 hits
> <br>#59&nbsp; Search dna [mh] and crick [au] 0 hits
> <br>#58&nbsp; Search dna [mh] AND crick [au] 34 hits
> <br>#57&nbsp; Search arthritis not letter [pt] 186125 hits
> <br>#56&nbsp; Search arthritis NOT letter [pt] 186125 hits
> <br>#55&nbsp; Search #45 and #47 711 hits
> <br>#54&nbsp; Search #45 AND #47 711 hits
> <br>#63&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna and multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#62&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna AND multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:09&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#61&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#60&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:37&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 415&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#59&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:23
> <br>0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#58&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:18
> <br>34&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#57&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis not letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:58&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#56&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis NOT letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:52&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#63&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna and multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#62&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna AND multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:09&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#61&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#60&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:37&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 415&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#59&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:23
> <br>0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#58&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:18
> <br>34&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#57&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis not letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:58&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#56&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis NOT letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:52&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#63&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna and multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:16&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#62&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna AND multiple sclerosis
> <br>23:25:09&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 1518&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#61&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#60&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND multiple sclerosis [mh]
> <br>23:22:37&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 415&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#59&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] and crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:23
> <br>0&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#58&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search dna [mh] AND crick [au]&nbsp; 23:19:18
> <br>34&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#57&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis not letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:58&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#56&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search arthritis NOT letter [pt]
> <br>23:18:52&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> 186125&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#55&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search #45 and #47&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 23:13:15
> <br>711&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>#54&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
> Search #45 AND #47&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 23:13:08
> <br>711&lt;UrlBlockedError.aspx&gt;
> <br>If this is only an issue when combining two or more field tags, 
> since we
> <br>don't teach our patrons to search with field tags, I'm seriously 
> considering
> <br>having them use lowercase Boolean like nearly all the other 
> databases do.
> <br>
> <br>Take care,
> <br>
> <br>Tanya
> <br>
> <br>Tanya Feddern-Bekcan, MLIS, AHIP, MOT, OTR/L
> <br>(&lt;http://www.geocities.com/nqiya/libraryarticles.html&gt;formerly 
> Tanya
> <br>Feddern)
> <br>305.243.3999 - [log in to unmask] - 305.325.9670 (fax)
> <br>
> <br>EBM Theme Director, Reference and Education Librarian, &amp; 
> Occupational
> <br>Therapist
> <br>
> <br>Louis Calder Memorial Library @ the University of Miami Miller 
> School of
> <br>Medicine
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>
> <br>"A library without a librarian is a reading room."-- Jenny Garcia 
> of the
> <br>University of Wyoming, MLS, AHIP
> <br>
> <br>
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> <br>database 4782 (20100118) __________
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> <br>The message was checked by ESET NOD32 Antivirus.
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> <br></blockquote>&lt;/div&gt;
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