S E Anderson: “Or does it force Marxist theory of the physical world to fundamentally rethink its foundation?”
I would deny that there is such a thing as a “Marxist theory of the material world.” Marx wrote a Critique of Political Economy (which is not the same as a Critical Political Economy), and that Critique, as he mentions in Volume 3, was intended to apply to the “ideal average” of capitalist economies. That is the core of Marxism, and it establishes (it seems to me) the impossibility of capitalism either collapsing on its own or evolving into something different. And if we use the sense of “science” (or the German word) used by German thinkers of the mid-19th c., somewhat different from the positivist science of the 20th-c, I think we can call that Critique a science.
Marx also wrote widely on many other topics, and much of his thought on all of those topics is of immense interest, and I agree with much of it, but I do not think it should be labeled “Marxism,” a term I myself anyhow reserve for that Critique of Political Economy.