Ebola, The African Union and Bioeconomic Warfare

by Horace Campbell

As the Ebola outbreak rages, and there are projections of more than 
1.4 million persons infected in the next few months, the African 
Union and ECOWAS has taken a back seat as the international media 
uses this virus to stigmatize Africa and Africans. Pious statements 
have been made by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the World 
Bank warns that Ebola could have "catastrophic" economic costs on the 
region of Western Africa. This same World Bank has not yet accepted 
any reasonability for its role in promoting neo-liberal politics that 
degraded the health care facilities of Africa. This degradation will 
be called in this statement, economic warfare. Bioeconomic warfare is 
the combination of economic warfare and biological warfare. In the 
midst of this tragedy, Britain, France and the United States use the 
deaths of thousands to remilitarize West Africa. Characteristically, 
this militaristic intervention with the division of the three 
societies between USA (Liberia) France (Guinea) and the United 
Kingdom (Sierra Leone) ensures that the media attention is placed on 
the military deployments of the western states and not on measures 
for public education.

The kind of international response that will be needed for countering 
bioeconomic warfare requires a different kind of public education and 
mobilization than what the African Union and ECOWAS has so far called 
for. Liberia, Sierra Leona and Guinea are the societies that are at 
the epicenter of the outbreak of (Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) that 
some writers have said has spun out of control. (i) These three 
territories are members of the Economic Community for West Africa 
(ECOWAS). ECOWAS is one of the five regional organizations that make 
up the African Union (AU). Six months after it was clear that this 
epidemic was widespread, in August 2014, there was a meeting of 
ECOWAS held in Ghana to address the outbreak. In this meeting, it was 
stressed that the best approach to curbing the spread of and bringing 
the disease under control remains effective quarantine, isolation and 
public education. There is no indication that either the AU or ECOWAS 
is working at their maximum effort to bring this disease under 
control. In the same month of August, the Director General of the 
World Health Organization stated that, the outbreak is "the largest 
and most severe and most complex that we've ever seen in the nearly 
40-year history of this disease."

One of the priorities of public education is for citizens to have a 
fuller understanding of the source or sources of Ebola and the kind 
of responses that can bring this pandemic under control. Citizens 
need to understand everywhere that Ebola is not particularly 
contagious. There should be the clarification that there is no cure 
for Ebola. All of the therapies and vaccines being used so far are 
experimental. The simple requirements of control are robust public 
health infrastructures, clean water facilities with sanitation and a 
clean environment. In short, Ebola can only be contained with robust 
health facilities. The very same institutions and organizations that 
have been at the forefront of bioeconomic warfare in Africa cannot 
lead the mobilization against Ebola. This mobilization requires 
nonmilitary, civilian medical leadership. Ebola presents one more 
challenge for a new kind of leadership in Africa that can value the 
lives of the producers.

Ebola: Where did it come from?

 From the varying press reports this current strain of Ebola broke 
out in Guinea at the end of 2013 and was brought to international 
attention by the time it had spread across West Africa by March 2013. 
The symptoms of Ebola haemorrhagic fever begin 4 to 16 days after 
infection. Persons develop fever, chills, headaches, muscle aches, 
and loss of appetite. As the disease progresses, vomiting, diarrhea, 
abdominal pain, sore throat and chest pain can occur. The blood clot 
and the patient may bleed from injection sites as well as into the 
gastrointestinal tract, skin and internal organs. The mortality rate 
is usually very high. This virus is not spread through the air via 
coughs or sneezes like the common cold. It is spread through frequent 
contact with bodily fluids and can be spread only by someone who is 
showing symptoms.

It should be stated from the outset that Ebola is not one of those 
illnesses which is known to the majority of healers and doctors in 
Africa. Scientific journals of all continents attest to the profound 
ignorance about this virus. Fifteen years ago the internationally 
respected International Journal of Infectious Diseases stated that 
"Filoviridae is the only known virus family about which we have such 
profound ignorance." (ii) What accounts for this profound ignorance 
on the part of the top researchers in the West?

Inside Africa, the most experienced, the traditional healers have no 
experience in dealing with this illness. The reports in the 
mainstream media place the first outbreak of Ebola in Africa in 1976. 
This virus was named for a river in Zaire, Africa, where Ebola was 
allegedly first detected." Then, according to information released by 
the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta," Ebola is a member 
of a family of RNA viruses known as filoviruses. When magnified 
several thousand times by electron microscope, these viruses have the 
appearance of long filaments of threads. Although the CDC places the 
first outbreak of Ebola in Zaire in 1976, the leading scientific 
journals such the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine 
placed the first outbreak in Marburg Germany.

One of the most profound requirements of public education is to 
diminish the racialization of Ebola to clarify that the first 
recognized outbreak took place not in Africa, but in Marburg Germany, 
hence the name given to Ebola as Marburg Virus. In 1967 an outbreak 
of haemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in 
Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany.

Thirty-one people became ill, initially laboratory workers followed 
by several medical personnel and family members who had cared for 
them. Seven deaths were reported.

The Evolution of Ebola

According to the CDC, the first Outbreak of Ebola was in 1976 in 
Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo). In their 
website, the CDC stated the first Outbreak of Ebola, "occurred in 
Yambuku and surrounding area. Disease was spread by close personal 
contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in 
hospitals/clinics. This outbreak was the first recognition of the 
disease. (iii) Why is it necessary for the CDC to place the evolution 
of disease in Africa? (iv) The website of the CDC differs from the 
Journal of Infectious Diseases that stated, "Biomedical science first 
encountered the virus family Filoviridae when Marburg virus appeared in 1967."

The reporting on the number of deaths in the Zaire outbreak differs 
according to differing sources. One fact is indisputable. This was 
the largest number of deaths at that time in 1976. There were 550 
cases and 340 deaths.

In the third outbreak in 1979, in Sudan, there were 34 cases and 22 fatalities.


The fourth outbreak of Ebola was in Reston Virginia in the United 
States. The strain of Ebola Reston is so called because of an 
outbreak which occurred in Reston, Virginia in late 1989. Very few 
following the present outbreak of Ebola know that there was an 
outbreak of Ebola in the Washington Suburb of Reston, Virginia in 
1989 less than 20 miles from the United States Capitol. There were 
two other small incidents of the Reston outbreak after 1989.

The Kitwit Outbreak

Six years after the first Reston Outbreak there was a major outbreak 
of Ebola at Kitwit in Zaire. There were over 200 fatalities. Up to 
then, the Kitwit Ebola outbreak had been the deadliest. The outbreaks 
are usually controlled when appropriate medical supplies and 
equipment were made available and quarantine procedures were used.

Since those days there have been periodic outbreaks in Uganda, 
Angola, Gabon, C?e d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) and other parts of Africa, 
but nothing compared to the scale and depth of the present pandemic 
in West Africa.

In the most popular book on this virus published over twenty years 
ago by Richard Preston, The Hot Zone: The Terrifying True Story of 
the Origins of the Ebola Virus(v) readers are exposed to the twenty 
years of research by the United States Army Medical Research 
Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRID) on a family of viruses 
that are lethal. This book came out before the Kitwit Outbreak but we 
know from press reports that the USAMRID, the CDC, the National 
Institutes of Health (NIH) and other international research 
organizations used the Kitwit outbreak to study this virus. The book 
concentrated on the three ways which the scientific community 
attempts to deal with a virus, vaccines, drugs and bio containment. 
This book by Preston came out in a moment when the tabloid press was 
making great claims about the airborne possibilities of Ebola and was 
whipping up anti-African hysteria.

It was in the same period when Robert Kaplan had written his 
celebrated article, "The Coming Anarchy. " It was this sensationalism 
that set the tone about the so called failed and fragile states in 
Africa. Robert Kaplan wrote extensively on how scarcity, crime, 
overpopulation, tribalism, and disease were rapidly destroying the 
social fabric of our African societies. (vi) Kaplan's work was part 
of the psychological warfare against Africa and Africans at the 
moment when the peoples of world were celebrating the victory over apartheid.

USAMRID -The US Military and Biological warfare research- one arm of 
bioeconomic warfare

The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases 
(USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland is supposed to be the frontline 
research institution for the USA in its bioshield preparations, which 
is the preparedness of the US government to fight against biological 
threats. President Richard Nixon had ended the offensive biological 
warfare program of the USA with his "Statement on Chemical and 
Biological Defense Policies and Programs" on November 25, 1969 in a 
speech from Fort Detrick. The statement was supposed to put an end, 
unconditionally, to all U.S. offensive biological weapons programs. 
The United Nations Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, 
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin 
Weapons and on their Destruction was signed in 1972. Even after the 
signing of this International Convention a number of countries 
including the USA continued research on designer viruses.

Although the United Nations Convention on Biological Warfare and the 
stockpiling of Toxin agents was passed in 1972, the explosion of 
scientific research on genetically modified organisms gave a boost to 
the research being carried out by both military and civilian agencies 
that were chasing profits from developing dual use pathogens. 
Biological agents that were being experimented with as bioweapons 
accelerated and the one bioweapon from this school of dual use 
pathogens that has come to light has been the experimentation on anthrax.

Characteristically, the use of anthrax on civilians by the military 
was in the case of the racist Rhodesian military who unleashed 
anthrax spores in feed cakes for animals killing over 80 Africans in 
what was then Rhodesia. Years later Dir. Timothy Stamps, the Minister 
of Health in Zimbabwe, drew a connection between the anthrax outbreak 
in Rhodesia, the Ebola outbreaks and the experimentation that had 
been carried out under South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare 
(CBW) program.

This South African apartheid (CBW) program has now received 
international notoriety through Project Coast where the apartheid 
regime was experimenting with biological agents that could be 
specifically targeted at Africans. The government of the United 
States has gone to great lengths to distance itself from the 
experimentation of Project Coast even though at the Truth and 
Reconciliation Commission (TRC of South Africa), Dr. Wouter Basson 
testified how he was warmly embraced by US intelligence elements. The 
full implication of the work of Wouter Basson and Daan Goosen is 
still to come to light. (vii)

The attractiveness of the weaponization of biological agents 
increased in the era of genetically modified organisms. Because 
Africa was the space of the most diverse genetic materials, 
scientists and bio anthropologists from the West traversed the rural 
countryside in Africa looking for plants with unique characteristics. 
In the era of massive research in the Life Sciences, many 
Universities became involved in dual use research.

Dual use research

Dual use research (DURC) is life sciences research that, based on 
current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide 
knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be 
directly misused to pose a significant threat with broad consequences 
to public health and safety, agricultural crops and other plants, 
animals, the environment, or national security. In short dual use 
research was research that could be used to assist in advancing human 
health and security or at the same time used for biological warfare.

We have learnt from research carried out by UNESCO that "military 
interest, in harnessing genetic engineering and DNA recombinant 
technology for updating and devising effective lethal bioweapons is 
spurred on by the easy availability of funding, even in times of 
economic regression, for contractual research leading to the 
development of bioweapons." (viii)

This is the research environment to grasp the present outbreak of 
Ebola in West Africa.

On the day before President Barack Obama spoke to the world on the 
Ebola Pandemic, the White House on Wednesday September 24, 2014 
issued new guidelines intended to strengthen the oversight of 
federally funded biology research that could inadvertently produce 
bioweapons. According to the report in the New York Times carried on 
Thursday September 25, "The new policy shifts the burden of finding 
and disclosing the dangerous aspects of research from the funding 
agency -- usually the National Institutes of Health -- to the 
scientists who receive the grants and the universities or other 
institutions where they work." On the same day, the National Public 
Radio (NPR) was more specific that the ruling related to dual use 
pathogens and research being carried in government funded 
laboratories. This report came three years after the controversies 
about bird flu research that was being carried out for bioterror 
purposes. In 2011, there had been a fierce debate in the media about 
the use of biological research for terror, in short bioterrorism. 
Then as NPR reported, "Scientists and security specialists are in the 
midst of a fierce debate over recent experiments on a strain of bird 
flu virus that made it more contagious weapons. In September of 2011 
at a scientific conference in Malta, one scientist made a stunning 
announcement at a flu conference "he'd done a lab experiment that 
resulted in bird flu virus becoming highly contagious between ferrets 
-- the animal model used to study human flu infection. It seemed that 
just five mutations did the trick." This report on NPR in November 
2011 did not reappear but in the same broadcast one noted 
bioterrorism expert and director of the Center for Biosecurity at a 
national University stated that,

"It's just a bad idea for scientists to turn a lethal virus into a 
lethal and highly contagious virus. And it's a second bad idea for 
them to publish how they did it so others can copy it."

So far no expert or whistle-blower has come forward to speak openly 
about experimentation with viral haemorrhagic fevers which are now 
lumped under the name of Ebola. Today as a vital component of 
prevention and public education there is the need for scientists and 
researchers to speak out about the laboratories in the West or 
elsewhere that have been experimenting with dual use pathogens. It is 
also necessary for the international community to know whether any of 
these research teams or University personnel associated with dual use 
pathogens has been active in the countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, 
Guinea or Nigeria before the present outbreak of Ebola. At the 
minimum, ECOWAS and the African Union should pressure the UN Ebola 
Fund to focus not only on fund raising but to also make Freedom of 
Information Act (FOIA) requests to fully develop the measures to 
properly organize against outbreaks of the current type.

 From the reports coming in on the numbers of people who have been 
left to die without attention or decent burial, the figures on the 
number of deaths in West Africa from theWorld Health Organization 
(WHO) have been a clear undercount to minimize the extent of the 
devastation being created by Ebola. In contrast to the numbers being 
broadcast by WHO, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 
Atlanta reported on Tuesday September 23 that "Ebola cases could 
increase to between 550,000 and 1.4 million in four months, based on 
several factors including how many people are infected by Ebola 
carriers. The report questioned whether the official number of deaths 
recorded by WHO, 2,800 out of at least 5,800 Ebola cases, has been 
underreported. CDC has said it is likely that 2.5 times as many 
cases, or nearly 20,000, have occurred so far." (ix) On the same 
Tuesday that the CDC issued its dire warning of the prospect of 1.4 
million persons dying, the New England Journal of Medicine also 
weighed in and stated that in an article entitles, "Ebola Virus 
Disease in West Africa -- The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and 
Forward Projections," "if the disease isn't adequately contained, it 
could become endemic among the populations in countries hardest hit 
by the outbreak -- Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. ... "Without 
drastic improvements in control measures," researchers say, "the 
numbers and cases and deaths from [Ebola] are expected to continue 
increasing from hundreds to thousands per week in coming months." (x)

According to the WHO, "Extensive, immediate actions -- such as those 
already started -- can bring the epidemic to ... a rapid decline in cases."

Beyond the Militarization of the response to Ebola

The extensive and immediate action referred to by the World Health 
Organization refers to the deployment of military forces by the 
United States, Britain and France to the countries most affected. The 
United States has deployed over 4,000 military personnel to West 
Africa to assist in the fight against Ebola. The fight against Ebola 
cannot be a military effort. It must be an effort that is based on 
seeking to bring back the health and safety of the peoples whose 
communities have been destroyed with hundreds of families losing 
loved ones. The United States plans to quickly increase its presence 
in Liberia, where military personnel are deploying to help the people 
halt the advance of the worst Ebola epidemic on record but we also 
need to know what the private security contractors have been doing in 
Liberia over the past ten years. President Obama has stated that the 
military is required to set up the medical and transportation 
infrastructure needed to deploy health workers. Why could this 
infrastructure work not be carried out by civilian agencies?

 From India, Dir. Sreeram Chaulia noted correctly in an article 
entitled Foreign Pulse: Viral Politics, that "As the Ebola epidemic 
ravages West Africa, a familiar act with troublesome connotations is 
playing out. The international response to the conjoined public 
health crises in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea is following 
imperial patterns of tutelage and patronage, wherein each of these 
three countries has been exclusively taken over by its respective 
former master from America and Europe through targeted humanitarian 
aid. ... An erstwhile colony established by American citizens freed 
from slavery, Liberia is back to being literally a ward of the US, 
which faces no competition from any other Western donor there. 
Washington is deploying up to 4,000 military personnel to set up 
hospitals, medical laboratories and treatment centres on a war 
footing. This mission, codenamed "Operation United Assistance", is 
being overseen by the controversial US Africa Command (AFRICOM)." (xi)

In a context where the international news media is dominated by the 
western news agencies, ECOWAS has also called for military 
mobilization to respond to EBOLA. In the opinion of this author, 
ECOWAS and the African Union has dropped the ball because the 
militarization of the international response will make it difficult 
for countries such as China, Cuba, India, South Korea and other 
societies to properly harmonize the medical response to this Ebola 
outbreak. The African Union and ECOWAS need a new kind of medical 
diplomacy which is rooted in the valuation of black bodies. Chaulia 
noted that "if the US, UK and France were driven by humanitarian 
motives, why did they not contribute to the multilateral UN Ebola 
response fund that would have distributed the funds more equitably 
among the three worst-hit West African countries? Thus far, only 
India and Australia have made sizeable donations of $10 million each 
to the UN Ebola fund that is woefully undersubscribed."

Project 112

In North America, the Fox news Organization and its affiliates have 
been at the forefront of the racialization of the present outbreak of 
Ebola. When the Liberian national was hospitalized and later 
succumbed to Ebola, the conservative media whipped up an 
unprecedented hysteria about the possibilities of an Ebola outbreak 
in the United States. (This patient, Thomas Eric Duncan has since 
passed away). Within this hysteria, there are questions in the media 
whether this virus could go airborne. Some readers will remember that 
the possibility of the airborne transmission of Ebola was the theme 
of the Film Outbreak that was produced by Hollywood. What has not 
been in the public domain was the fact that it was the US government 
that from 1962 to 1973 carried out a biological and chemical weapon 
experimentation project called Project 112.

This was specifically conducted so that those who were being 
experimented with did not know that they were guinea pigs. In 2000 
when US Television Network CBS made known the existence of this 
biological warfare program, it was also revealed that apart from 
testing on individuals in the USA there were tests carried out in 
countries where "The US Department of Defense (DoD) conducted testing 
of agents in other countries that were considered too unethical to 
perform within the continental United States."

Project Bioshield

We are yet to know which African societies were considered ripe for 
the testing of toxins by the US Department of Defense. After the 
anthrax scare in the USA in 2001 and the war against the people of 
Iraq in 2003, the US Congress passed the Project Bioshield Act in 
2004 calling for U.S. $5 billion for purchasing vaccines that would 
be used in the event of a bioterrorist attack. There has been a ten 
year program to put money into the same forces that were 
experimenting with dual use pathogens. In the words of the Congress 
Project Bio shield was a ten-year program to acquire medical 
countermeasures to biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear 
agents for civilian use. The US government has been working on 
countermeasures against biological warfare. Is it by accident that 
the top three threats that the Bioshield program is meant to defend 
the citizens of the US from are Anthrax, Ebola and Bird Flu?

Africa and bioterrorism

Africans have faced bioterrorism from the time of colonialism and 
apartheid and this is well documented in the book Medical Apartheid: 
The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from 
Colonial Times to the Present, Harriet Washington went into great 
details about the bioterrorism against black people. The Tuskegee 
experiment is now the most well-known case of using black bodies as 
guinea pigs for medical experimentation. The book on Hela Cells 
(Henrietta Lacks) is another devastating account of the use of black 
bodies. (xii)

Harriet Washington placed chemical and biological warfare under the 
larger category of "bioterrorism," which "employs chemical or 
biological agents such as microbes and poisons in the service of 
terrorism weapons often consist of disease-causing organisms, usually 
microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or derivatives from 
humans, animals or plants." (xiii) Another important aspect of 
biological warfare that Harriet Washington brings forth is the fact 
that it can be both direct and indirect when used against 
populations. In other words, chemical agents can be used to kill 
people directly by physically harming them with something such as 
nerve gas, or biological warfare can be used to pollute the 
environment in which someone lives in order to cut off their source 
of food (plants, livestock), water, or both.

Cuba is one society outside of Africa that has been forced to develop 
the medical and biosafety capabilities after the outbreak of Dengue 
fever in 1977. We now know from the new book, Back Channel to Cuba, 
that Henry Kissinger had organized a plan to 'smash' Cuba. (xiv) This 
was because Kissinger was angry about the Cuban intervention in 
Angola in 1975-1976 to beat back the racist South African Incursion 
into Angola. Henry Kissinger who had overseen the authorship of the 
National Security Memorandum 39 of 1969 which predicted that whites 
were destined to stay and rule in Southern Africa was upset that a 
small island committed to an alternative mode of economic 
organization could ruin his plans for Africa. It was reported in the 
recent New York Times article that in the discussions between Henry 
Kissinger (then Secretary of State) and President Gerald Ford, Mr. 
Kissinger used "language about doing harm to Cuba that is pretty 
quintessentially aggressive." (xv)

The Cubans have exposed that the experiences of Dengue fever which 
broke out in Cuba in 1977 was linked to biological warfare by the US 
government. This has been corroborated by press reports from the 
United States based media organizations. At that time the United 
States government blocked efforts by the Cuban government to purchase 
fumigators and chemicals to control the dengue spread.

As a small island, Cuba has been able to develop quarantine measures 
but more importantly develop the scientific capacity to research the 
root of outbreaks such as Dengue.

The African Union and ECOWAS must take the lead to respond to this lethal virus

In August the President of the USA called the First US Africa Summit 
in Washington. Although the Ebola pandemic was already killing more 
persons than the four episodes discussed in the website of the CDC, 
the White House was not focused on the devastation that was being 
wrought on West Africa. In Africa, Ebola has exposed the porousness 
of the so called borders. The African Union has so far failed to take 
the lead in mobilizing to fight this pandemic. Does the African Union 
have in place any kind of bioshield preparation? At the time of the 
outbreak of the HIV AIDS pandemic it was significant that western 
pharmaceuticals placed their profits before human lives. It took the 
massive organizing of a grassroots movement such as the Treatment 
Action Campaign (TAC) of South Africa to pressure the pharmaceuticals 
to allow for the production of generic drugs to treat AIDS patients 
in Africa. This TAC campaign influenced the cooperation between 
India, Brazil and South Africa which later merged into BRICS.

The African Union and the African Union must be pushed to act more decisively

A similar grassroots mobilization is now needed in West Africa to 
break the slow and lackadaisical response of ECOWAS and the AU. 
ECOWAS has been able in the past to intervene in Liberia and Sierra 
Leone to bring peace. Collectively, ECOWAS and the AU possess the 
technical and medical capabilities to be more vigorous in response to 
Ebola. There is the mistaken perception abroad that Africa does not 
have the medical personnel to fight this epidemic. However, the 
ability to mobilize the resources in Africa for a more robust 
response depends on political will. Nigeria alone has over 40,000 
doctors with thousands having experience in infectious diseases. In 
the economic warfare against Africa the medical profession of Africa 
was assaulted and there was a massive brain drain of African medical 
personnel to Europe and North America. African governments have been 
very clear about their objections to the wholesale migration of their 
physicians to rich countries. Despite these objections there are more 
than 10,000 international medical graduates from Africa in the USA 
and Western Europe. The US received more than 7,000 doctors from 
three countries: Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. Progressive 
Africans will have to mobilize for a change of course so that the AU 
and the United Nations can demilitarize the response to Ebola.

Already it has been demonstrated in Liberia that the pandemic can be 
contained. Nigeria and Senegal have been able to contain the virus. 
The western media has drawn attention the fact that Firestone Company 
in Liberia was able to contain and control the virus on its rubber 
plantation. (xvi) This author is no fan of Firestone. At the recent 
Empowered Africa Dialogue in Washington during August, workers at 
Firestone spoke of the low wage and exploitative working conditions 
on the rubber plantation. Thus this company cannot be held up as an 
example, but the important point is that Ebola can be controlled and 
there was no need for the pandemic to spin out of control. The 
Firestone story also demonstrates that the military is not needed to 
organize the medical and transport infrastructure to contain the 
escalation of the deaths.

This author has been critical of saviours from outside but this Ebola 
pandemic provides an opportunity for the true humanitarian doctors to 
separate themselves from the militarized response to the Ebola 
outbreak. The African Union must take the lead so that those medical 
responders can find a non-military infrastructure to work with. There 
is the need for full scale mobilization in all of the countries where 
health workers, traditional doctors, scientists, civilian agencies 
and the military will be crucial in the fight against bio-economic 
warfare. Global health experts have declared the Ebola epidemic 
ravaging West Africa an international health emergency that requires 
a coordinated global approach.

Although the media has racialized the Ebola pandemic, there is urgent 
need for the international community to come together for this 
coordinated global approach. The Ebola virus presented a real 
challenge to Africa and the deployment of scientists, community 
health workers, volunteers and health brigades to combat this virus 
is one of the most important tasks of reconstruction in Africa.

Horace Campbell is Professor of African American Studies and 
Political Science at Syracuse University. He is the author of Global 
NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya: Lessons for Africa in the 
Forging of African Unity, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2013.


i Evan Horowitz, "How the Ebola Virus Spun Out of Control," Boston 
Globe, October 8, 2014. 

ii C. J. Peters, J. W. LeDuc, "An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus 
and the Disease," The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 179, 
Supplement 1. Ebola: The Virus and the Disease (Feb., 1999), pp. ix-xvi

iii Outbreaks Chronology: Ebola Virus Disease, CDC, Known Cases and 
Outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, in Chronological Order: 

iv See Centers for Disease Control, "Known Cases and Outbreaks of 
Ebola Virus Disease, in Chronological Order:" 

v Richard Preston, The HotZone: The Terrifying True Story of the 
Origins of the Ebola Virus," Anchor books, 1995.

vi Robert Kaplan, "The Coming Anarchy," The Atlantic, February, 1994 

vii Helen E. Pruitt, Stephen F. Burgess: South Africa's Weapons of 
Mass Destruction. Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2005

viii Edgar J. DaSilva," Biological warfare, bioterrorism, biodefence 
and the biological and toxin weapons convention," Electronic Journal 
of Biotechnology,Volume 2, No 3, December 1999. See also Wright, S. 
(1985). "The military and the new biology. Bulletin of the Atomic 
Scientists 41:10-16.

ix "Estimating the Future Number of Cases in the Ebola Epidemic -- 
Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014-2015," 

x Bruce et al, B. p.-M. "Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa -- The 
First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections." The New 
England Journal of Medicine. 2014.

xi Sreeram Chaulia, "Viral Politics, Foreign Pulse, October 8, 

xii Rebecca Skloot, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Broadway 
Books, New York 2011

xiii Harriet Washington, Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of 
Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the 
Present, Anchor Books, New York 2008 page 365

xiv William M. Leo Grande and Peter Kornbluh, Back Channel to Cuba, 
University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 2014.

xv Frances Robles, "Kissinger Drew Up Plans to Attack Cuba, Records 
Show," New York Times, September 30, 2014 

xvi National Public Radio, "Firestone Did What Governments Have Not: 
Stopped Ebola In Its Tracks."