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It's not clear whether Monsanto's genetically 
engineered marijuana is already on the market. We 
learned about the possibility of corporations 
like Monsanto synthesizizing THC -- the active 
ingredient in marijuana -- in a lab around 8 
years ago. There has been much debate over the 
high rates of THC in synthetic as well as hybrid 
marijuana, where the amount of THC is double and 
even sometimes triple the amount many of us used 
(and continue to use), and which really fucks you up.

Here's anarticle from NBC, which omits the 
discussion over whether high-THC marijuana is genetically engineered ...

Another reason to hate Monsanto.

Bayer is betting almost a trillion dollars in 
potential fines to Monsanto (bought last year by 
Bayer for $66 billion and which is now liable for 
those fines),  that it will make enough via 
marijuana and other gmo seeds that the fines will 
be offset from its sales of Roundup Ready pot.

It is CRUCIAL for those of us fighting to 
legalize pot that we demand that legalization 
cover ONLY organically grown non-GMO marijuana and ban GMO pot.

Mitchel Cohen


https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/legal-pot/daily-use-high-potency-marijuana-linked-higher-rates-psychosis-study-n985151

Daily use of high potency marijuana linked to 
higher rates of psychosis, study finds

“The more cannabis you consume the more likely 
you are to develop a psychotic disorder.”
March 19, 2019

By Shamard Charles, M.D.

Daily cannabis use, especially of the high 
potency strains, is linked to an increased risk 
of developing psychosis, according to new research released Tuesday.

The 
<http://www.thelancet-press.com/embargo/cannabis.pdf>European 
study, which looked at cannabis use in 11 major 
cities and Brazil, is the first to show the 
impact of marijuana use on rates of psychosis, a 
severe mental condition, in large populations. 
The link with psychosis was strongest in London 
and Amsterdam where high potency strains ­ 
marijuana which contains over 10 percent THC, the 
psychoactive component of the drug ­ are highest and most commonly available.


<https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/legal-pot/even-little-marijuana-may-change-teen-brain-study-finds-n958536?icid=related>Even 
a little marijuana may change teen brain, study finds

In Amsterdam, half of all new cases of psychosis 
were linked with high potency use; in London, 
one-third of new cases were linked with high potency use.

“Our findings are consistent with previous 
studies showing that the use of cannabis with a 
high concentration of THC, also known as 
skunk-like cannabis, has more harmful effects on 
mental health than weaker forms,” said Dr. Marta 
Di Forti, lead author from the Institute of 
Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience at 
King’s College, in London. “For the first time we 
have consistent evidence that there is a 
dose-dependent relationship between cannabis use 
and induced psychosis at a population level. The 
more cannabis you consume the more likely you are 
to develop a psychotic disorder.”

The new study, published in 
<https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/onlineFirst>The 
Lancet Psychiatry journal, looked at 901 
individuals with first episode psychosis who used 
mental health services across Europe between 2010 
and 2015. The researchers collected information 
about participants’ history of cannabis use and 
other recreational drugs. They used published 
data to estimate THC levels in the types of cannabis used by participants.

The strains were classified as either high 
potency ­ over 10 percent THC ­ or low potency ­ under 10 percent THC.

Across the 12 sites, people who used any type of 
cannabis on a daily basis were three times more 
likely to have a diagnosis of a new episode of 
psychosis, compared with people who had never 
used cannabis, the researchers concluded. This 
increased to five times more likely for daily use of high potency cannabis.

Of all new cases of psychosis across the 12 sites 
during that time period, an estimated one in five 
new cases of psychosis were linked to daily 
cannabis use. One in 10 were linked to use of 
high potency cannabis, the study found.

“THC is the culprit in the psychotic events,” said Di Forti.

In the Netherlands, the THC content reaches up to 
67 percent in certain cities such as Nederhasj. 
In London, skunk-like cannabis, known for its 
strong stench, represents 94 percent of the 
street market and has an average THC of 14 percent.

Previous research has linked weed use and 
psychosis, but the studies haven't been in large 
enough populations to provide reliable results.

A Canadian study 
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpp.12765/abstract;jsessionid=6B0022CC846FC7E31E7B8A5BD9EFCE5F.f04t04?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+down+on+Wednesday+05th+July+starting+at+17.00+EDT+%2F+22%3A00+BST+%2F+02%3A30+IST+%2F+05.00+SGT+%286th+July%29+for+up+to+1+hour+due+to+essential+maintenance+>published 
in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 
in 2017 showed a substantial increase in 
“psychotic-like experiences” in teenage users. 
The study also reported adverse effects on 
cognitive development and increased symptoms of depression.

Other studies show that chronic use may even 
interfere with 
<https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18020202>normal 
development of the adolescent brain.

“The results of this study need to be taken 
seriously,” said Dr. Adrian James, Registrar at 
the Royal College of Psychiatrists, in London.

“Cannabis carries severe health risks and users 
have a higher chance of developing psychosis,” 
James said in a statement. “The risks are 
increased when the drug is high in potency, used 
by children and young people and when taken frequently.”

Many countries have legalized or decriminalized 
cannabis use, leading to concerns that this might 
result in an increase in cannabis use and associated harms.

Studies on marijuana cannot be performed in the 
U.S. because the drug ­ which is now legal by a 
doctor’s order in 
<https://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881>33 
states and recreationally in 11 states plus the 
District of Columbia ­ remains in the same class 
federally as heroin and LSD, a Schedule I drug, 
designated as having “a high potential for abuse” 
and “no currently accepted medical use.”

Public health advocates of U.S. cannabis research 
believe marijuana laws should have no bearing on 
a scientist’s ability to study the drug’s consequences on a population.

This makes European and Canadian research all the 
more important, especially as more potent 
marijuana strains enter the U.S. market. For 
example, 
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322316000457>one 
study found that the average amount of THC in 
U.S. marijuana samples rose from 4 percent in 
1995 to over 12 percent in 2014. During that same 
time, cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component 
of marijuana, fell from 0.28 percent to 0.15 
percent. This shift in the ratio of THC to CBD 
has a pronounced effect on the drug's perceived potency.

“CBD, which we refer to as the 'good guy' 
component of cannabis, has no psycho-active 
component and has even been show to offset the 
psychoactive components of THC in experimental studies,” said Di Forti.

In the U.S. the average THC potency of the 
cannabis flower products sold in Washington’s 
state-licensed markets is over 20 percent, and 
the average potency of extract-based products ­ 
like oils for vaping pens, and dabs ­ is in the 
neighborhood of 70 percent, Jonathan Caulkins, a 
drug policy researcher and professor at Carnegie 
Mellon University told NBC News.

Di Forti cautions that until more research is 
done, it is in most people’s best interest to 
stay away from high potency cannabis.

“If you want to experiment with it, do it rarely,” she said.

-----------------------------
Dr. Shamard Charles is a physician-journalist for 
NBC News and Today, reporting on health policy, 
public health initiatives, diversity in medicine, 
and new developments in health care research and medical treatments.



<https://www.thepoliticsofpesticides.com/>The<https://www.thepoliticsofpesticides.com/> 
Fight Against Monsanto's Roundup: The Politics of 
Pesticides (SkyHorse, 2019), authored by Mitchel 
Cohen, is now available at bookstores everywhere! 
Please click on link to learn more.